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more clearly from a perusal of the different pro­ductions themselves, that Isidorus not only abridged others, but not unfrequently epitomised himself, and presented the same matter repeatedly with slight modification. The style throughout pre­sents a sad picture of the decay of the Latin lan­guage, and even in the Origines, where he appears ' to make great exertions to copy closely the phra­seology of pure models, we meet with a constant recurrence of miserable barbarisms.

The Editio Princeps of the collected works was printed by Michael Sonnius, under the inspection of Margarinus de la Bigne, Paris, fol. 1 580, which was followed by the more accurate and complete edition which issued from the royal press at Madrid, fol., 2 vols., 1599, resting chiefly on the MS. of Alvarus Gome?, and enriched with the notes of J. B. Perez, and of the editor, J. Grial. Besides these, editions appeared at Paris, fol., 1601, by Jac. du Breul, at Cologne, fol., 1617, which is a reprint of the preceding, and a second Madrid edition in 1778 ; but by far the most complete and most useful of all is that of F. Arevali, Rom., 7 vols. 4to., 1797—1803.

(See the Praenotatio Lilrorum Isidori, by Braulio, prefixed to the edition of Grial ; Ildefon- sus, De Script. Eccles. c. 9 ; Sigebertus Gembla- censis, De Script. Eccles. c. 55 ; Jo. Trithemius, De Script. Eccles. c. 232 ; Isidorus Pacensis, in Ckron.) [W.R.]

ISIDORUS, one of the professors of law to whom the constitutio Omnem, de Conceptione Di-gestorum was addressed by Justinian in a. d. 533. It is generally supposed that Isidorus was a pro­fessor at Berytus, not Constantinople, but there is no express authority for this belief. (Ritter, ad Heineccii Rist. Jur. Rom. § 336.) By Suarez (Notit. Basil. § 41), Fabricius (Bill. Gr. vol. xii. p, 345), and Hoffmann (Hist. Jur. ii. 2, p. 556) Isidorus is stated to have been one of the jurists employed by Justinian in compiling the Digest, but there is no warrant for this assertion in Const. Tanta, § 9, where the names of the commissioners appointed by Justinian for that purpose are enu-


In the "Collectio Constitutionum Graecarum," edited by Ant. Augustinus (8vo. Ilerdae, 1567, fol. 6, a.) is an extract from Matthaeus Blastares, which, as it differs considerably from the text of Blastares given by Beveridge (Synodicon, vol. ii. in Praef. Syntagrnatos), we here transcribe :

^Te^ayQs yap ns fis 7r\dros rd Afyeora e|?j-77^<r«Tftj (sic) Kupi\\os kut* kniro^v. Awp60eos /A€<T77 ra£« exprfwro. ©aAeAatos avriKevffop (sic) toj)s KocSi/cas els irAciros e/cSe&y/ce. ®e6^capos


'O 5e 'IcrtSwpos (TTevdrepov pev rov ©aAeAafot;,' irXwrvTspov 5e rtav Koiir&v 8uo.

(Rei0. ad Tlieopkilum^. 1246. § 16 ; Zachariae, Hist. Jur. Gr. Rom. Delin. Corrigenda ad p. 27, iin. 21.)

The work of Isidorus here mentioned was pro­bably a Greek abridgment of the Code, with com­mentary. Fragments of it are to be found in Schol. Basil, vol. vi. p. 211, 212, 213, 230—234, 251— 253. The abridgment seems to have been ad­mitted into the text of the Basilica, while the com­mentary is. appended by way of scholium. (Mor-treueil, Histoire du Droit Byzantin, vol. i* p. 1 42.) This is probably the work referred to by the scho­liast on Bxstt. vol. v. p. 356, under the name 17


'la&o&pov c/c5d<ns, for the scholium on that passag6 relates to cod. 3. tit. 41. In Schol. Basil, vol. vi. p. 219, Isidorus cites a Constitution of Leo. This citation has by some been supposed to point to a Novel of Leo the Philosopher, and accordingly the date of Isidorus has been thrown forward ; but Reiz has justly observed (ad TheopJi. p. 1237) that Isidorus is referring to a Constitution of Leo the Thracian of a. d. 459, inserted in cod. 8. tit. 54. s. 30.

From Schol. Basil, vol. ii. p. 558, and Schol. Basil, vol. iii. p. 53, Isidorus is proved to have written a commentary on the Digest; and several extracts from this commentary are appended to the Basilica. (Schol, Basil, vol. ii. p. 555, 556, 558, &c. ed. Fabrot., vol. ii. p. 384, 396, 398, 399,483, ed. Heimbach.) No credit is to be given to Nic. Comnenus Papadopoli, who (Praenot. Mystag. p. 403) speaks of an Isidorus antecessor and logo- theta dromi, and mentions his Scholia on the Novells of Alexius Comnenus. (Heimbach, de Basil. Orig. p. 40.) [J. T. G.]

ISIDORUS, artists. 1. A sculptor, of uncer­tain time and country, known by his statue of Hercules at Parium, on the Propontis. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 16.) This is according to the common text of Pliny, which is, however, al­most certainly corrupt. See hegesias, p. 368, b.

Some years ago the base of a statue, inscribed with the name of Isidorus, was dug up in the fo­rum at Cumae. (Raoul-Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn^ p. 79.)

2, 3. Of Miletus, the elder and younger, were eminent architects in the reign of Justinian. The elder of them was associated with Anthemius of Tralles, in the rebuilding of the great church of St. Sophia, at Constantinople, before a. d. 537. The younger Isidorus rebuilt the dome of St. Sophia, after it had been destroyed by an earthquake, a. d. 554, and made some additions to the interior of the church. (Procop. i. 1. ; Agathias, v. 9 ; Malalas, p. 81 ; Miiller, Arcfidol. d. Kunst, § 194, n. 4 ; Kugler, Kunstgeschichte^ p. 360, &c.) [P. S.]

ISIGONUS (*l<riyovos\ a Greek writer, who, according to Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. Nt/«ua), was a native of Nicaea, and, according to Cyrillus (adv. Julian. 3) of Cittium, though it is not im­ probable that in the latter passage d Kimeds may be only a false reading for d Ni/caeus. The time at which he lived is uncertain, though Gellius (ix. 4) calls him an ancient writer of no small authority. Tzetzes (ad Lycopli. 1021) calls him an historian, but the only work he is known to have written bore the title "ATi-tcrra, whence he is regarded as one of the class of writers called irapafio£oypd<poi. (Tzetz. CUl. vii. 144.) The fact that Pliny (H. N. vii. 2) and Sotion used the work seems to show that Isigonus lived previous to the beginning of the Christian era. The work of Isigonus is lost, and the few fragments of it which have come down to us are collected in Westermann's IIapa8o|oypa- pp. 162, 163. [L.S.]

ISIGONUS, a Greek statuary, was one of the artists who represented the battles of Attalus and Eumenes against the Gauls, about b. c. 239. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 24.) [P. S.]

ISIS (TI<ns), one of the principal Egyptian divi­nties. The ideas entertained about her and her worship underwent the greatest changes and modi­fications in antiquity. She is described as the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. As Osiris, the

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