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than the treachery of Jovius became manifest. Honorius having despatched him, Valens, the quaestor Potamius, and the notarius Julian to Rimini .to effect an arrangement with Attains, Jovius proposed to Attains to divide the western empire with Honorius; but the usurper having declined the proposition, Joviussuddenly abandoned the emperor, .and made common cause with Attalus. After the imhar^y issue of the rebellion of Attains, Jovius fearlessly returned to Honorius, and had the impudence to assert that he had only joined the rebel for the purpose of causing his certain ruin. He escaped punishment. It is very doubtful whether this Jovius is the same with the quaestor Jovius mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxi. 8.), in the year 361. (Zosim. v. p. 363, &c. ed. Paris ; Olympiodor. apud P/iotium, p. 180, &c.) [W. P.]
IPHIANASSA (>I$u£i'a<r<ra), the name of four mythical personages: the first was a daughter of Proetus by Anteia or Stheneboea [proetus] ; the second a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnes- tra, and one of the three maidens among whom Achilles was to be allowed to choose (Horn. II. ix. 145, 287); the third was the wife of Endymion (Apolled, i. 7. § 6), and the fourth one of the Ne reides. (Lucian, Dial. Dear. 14.) [L. S.]
IPHIAS ('fyttfc), i. e. a daughter of IphiSj a name applied to Evadne, the wife of Capaneus, (Ov. Ep. ex Pont. iii. 1, 111 ; Eurip. SuppL 985, &c.) Iphias is also the name of a priestess men" tioned in the story about the Argonauts. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 312 ) [L. S.]
IPHICIANUS ci</mkich/o's), a physician, who is mentioned four times by Galen, and whose name is in each passage spelt differently, viz. 'iQutiavos (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Offic. Med. i. 3, vol. xviii. pt. ii. p. 654), 'Etyuciavos (De Ord. Libror. suor. vol. xix. p. 58), tyiKiavos (Comment, in Hip pocr. "Epid. Ill:'' i.*29, vol. xvii. pt, i. p. 575), and $i)Kiav6s (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Humor." iii. 34, vol. xvi. p. 484.) The form of the name here adopted is considered by Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vol. iii. p. 571, xiii. p. 302, ed. vet.) to be the most correct, but M. Littre, in his edition of Hippocrates (vol. i. p. 113), seems to prefer Phecianus. He was a pupil of Quintus, and one of the tutors of Galen, about the middle of the second century after Christ. He was a follower of the Stoic philosophy, and commented on part or the whole of the works of Hippocrates. [W. A. G.]
IPHJCLES or IPHICLUS ('LJu/cAfc, "%-K\os9 or *I<pi/cAeu$). 1. A son of Amphitryon'and Alcmene of Thebes, was one night younger than his half-brother Heracles, who strangled the snakes which had been sent by Hera or by Amphitryon, and at which Iphicles was frightened. (.Apollod. ii. 4. § 8,) He was first married to Automedusa, the daughter of Alcathous, by whom he became the father of lolaus, and afterwards to the youngest daughter of Creon. (Apollod. ii. 4. § 11.) He accompanied Heracles on several expeditions, and is also mentioned among the Calydonian hunters. (Apollod. i. 8. § 2.) According to Apollodorus (ii. 7. § 3), he fell in battle against the sons of Hippocoon, but according to Pausanias (viii. 14. § 6), he was wounded in the battle against the Molionides, and being carried to Pheneus, he was
nursed by'Buphagufc and Promne, but died there, and was honoured with a heroum.
2. A son of Thestius by Laophonte or Deida-meia, and, according to others, by Eurythemis or Leucippe. He took part in the Calydonian hunt and the expedition of the Argonauts. (Apollod. i. 8. § 3, 9. § 16 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 201 ; Orph. Arg. 158 ; Val. Flacc. i. 370; Hygin. Fab. 14.)
3. A son of Phylacus, and grandson of Deion and Clymene, or, according to others, a son of Cephalus and Clymene, the daughter of Minyas. He was married to Diomedeia or Astyoche,and was the father of Podarces and Protesilaus. (Horn. II. ii. 705, xiii. 698 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 12; Paus. iv. 36. § 2; x. 29. § 2 ; Hygin. Fab. 103.) He was, like the two other Iphicles, one of the Argonauts, and pos sessed large herds of oxen, which he gave to Me- lampus, who had given him a favourable prophecy respecting his progeny. (Horn. //. ii. 705, Od. xi. 289, &c.) He was also celebrated for his swiftness in racing, by which he won the prize at the funeral games of Pelias, but in those of Ama- rynceus he was conquered by Nestor. (Paus. v. 17. § 4, 36. § 2. x. 29. § 2 ; Horn. 77. xxiii. 636.) [L. S.]
IPHICRATES ('tywf/>£r77s), the famous Athenian general, was the son of a shoemaker, whose name seems to have been Timotheus. He first brought himself into notice by gallantly boarding a ship of the enemy (perhaps at the battle of Cnidus, B. c. 394) and bringing off the captain to his own trireme. It was from this exploit, if we may believe Justin, that the Athenians gave him the command of the forces which they sent to the aid of the Boeotians after the battle of Coroneia, when he was only 25 years old. (Arist. Rhet. i. 7. § 32, 9. §31, ii. 23. § 8 ; Plut. Apoph. p. 41. ed. Tauchn. ; Just. vi.. 5 ; Oros. iii. 1; see Rehdantz, Vit. Iphic. Chabr. Timoth, i. § 7. Berol. 1845.) In b. c. 393 we find him general of a force of mercenaries in the Athenian service at Corinth; and in this capacity he took part in the battle of Lechaeum, wherein the. Lacedaemonian commander, Praxitas, having been admitted within the long walls of Corinth, defeated the Corinthian, Boeotian, Argive, and Athenian troops. (Dem. Phil. i. p. 46 ; Schol. ad Arist. Plut. 173 ; Diod. xiv. 86, 91 ; Polyaen. i. 9 ; Plat. Menex, p. 245; Xen. Hett. iv. 4. §§6—12; Andoc. de Pace, p. 25 ; Harpocr. and Suid. s. v. Eew«:<f/>.) The system now adopted by the belligerent parties of mutual annoyance, by inroads on each other's territories, seems to have directed the attention of Iphicrates to an important improve-? ment in military tactics — the formation of a body of targeteers (ireA/raorai) possessing, to a certain extent, the advantages of heavy and light-armed forces. This he effected by substituting a small target for the heavy shield, adopting a longer sword and spear, and replacing the old coat of mail by a linen corslet, while he also made his soldiers wear light shoes called afterwards, from his name, 'I$i-Kpario'es. Having thus increased the efficiency of " the hands of the army," to use his own metaphor (Plut. Pelop. 2), he invaded with these troops the territory of Phlius, and slew so many of the Phlia-sians, that they were obliged to call in the aid of a Lacedaemonian garrison, which ever before they had carefully avoided ; and he ravaged, too, the lands of Arcadia with impunity, as the Arcadian heavy-armed forces were afraid to face the targeteers. (Xen. Hell. iv. 4. §§ 14—17 ; Diod. xiv