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JOSEPHUS.

the Goths, or Getae, as he calls them, in twelve volumes, by the " Senator" (Cassiodorus), to which he added several things which he had read in the Roman and Greek writers, and he also drew up the conclusion and the commencement, as well as many episodes, according to his own knowledge or taste. It would be unjust to charge Jornandes with pure inventions ; his fault is credulity and want of judg­ment ; and none of his statements ought to be re­jected without a previous careful examination. This remark refers, among other examples, to his account of the second invasion of Gaul by Attila, for which he is the only authority. In spite of so many de­fects, the history of the Goths by Jornandes is a very interesting work, and whatever may have been said against him by modern historians, they show by the numerous quotations of his name that they owe a great deal of information to him.

The second work of Jornandes is entitled De Regnorum ac Temporum Sziccessione, being a short compendium of the most remarkable events from the creation down to the victory obtained by Nar-ses, in 552, over king Theodatus, It is only va­luable for some accounts of several barbarous na­tions of the north, and the. countries which they inhabited.

Editions, nearly all of which comprehend both the works:—Editio princeps, with Paulus Diaco- nus, by C. Peutinger, Augsburg, 1515, fol.; with Procopius, by Beatus Rhenanus, Basel, 1531, fol. ; with Cassiodorus, by G. Fourrier, Paris, 1579, fol., 1583, and often, by B. Vulcanius, with Procopius and some minor writers, Leyden, 1597, 8vo. ; the same, reprinted in Scriptores Goth, et Longob. Rer., Leyden, 1617, 8vo., and in Hugo Grotius, Hist. Goth. Vand. et Longob., Amsterdam, 1655, 1676, 8vo., by Gruter, in Hist. Aug. Script. Lot. Min., Hanover, 1611, fol. ; by Lindenbrog, with Isidorus and Paulus Diaconus, Hamburg, 1611, 4to. ; by Garet, with Cassiodorus, Paris, 1679, fol., reprinted Venice, 17*29, fol. ; the same, revised by Muratori, in vol. i. part i. of his Script. Rer. Ital.: these are the two best editions. There are several others, but we still want a good critical edition. There is a bad French translation by Drouet de Maupertuy, and a better one in Swedish, by J. T. Peringskiold, Stockholm, 1719, 4to. Swedish scholars, especially Peringskiold and Eric Benzelius, have devoted much time and labour to writing commentaries upon Jornandes, which the reader ought to peruse with no less caution than the original. (Fabric. Bill. Med. et Inf. Latinit.; Bibl. Lot. vol. iii. p. 7 ; Voss. De Hist. Lat. lib. ii.) [W. P.]

JOSEPHUS ('Iwo-TjTros or.'Ic&npnw). 1. Of alexandria, archdeacon of Alexandria, attended the council of Constantinople (reckoned to be the eighth oecumenical council by the Latin church) held by order of the emperor Basil the Macedonian (a. d. 869), as vicarius of the absent patriarch of Alexandria, Michael. A Latin version of a written address presented by Josephus at the council is given in the Concilia. (Vol. viii col. 1114, ed. Labbe; vol. v. col. 887, ed. Hardouin ; vol. xvi. col. 148, ed. Mansi; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. v. p. 59 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 55, ed. Oxford, 1740—1742.)

2. Of arimathea. There is an ancient tradi­tion that Joseph of Arimathea was sent by the apostle Philip to preach the gospel in Britain ; and this tradition was gravely urged at the council of Constance, a. d. 1414, in a dispute between the

JOSEPHUS.

representatives of the French and English churches for the eminence of their respective establishments. Some writers, for instance Bale, have ascribed to Joseph of Arimathea Epistolae quaedam ad Ecdesias Britannorum; but there is great doubt whether any such writings ever existed, and still greater doubt as to their genuineness. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. v. p. 59 ; Cod. Apocryph. Novi Test. Pars iii. p. 506 ; Ittigius, Biblioth. Patrum Apos-tol. Disserted, c. 13.)

3. bryennius. [bryennius.]

4. christianus. [See No. 12.]

5. confessor. [studita.]

6. Of constantinople, 1. [genesius.]

7. Of constantinople, 2. Joseph, who pre­viously held the archbishopric of Ephesus, was elected, A. d. 1416, patriarch of Constantinople. Some writers have placed his. appointment to the patriarchate A. d. 1424 ; but the date given above on the authority of Sylvester Sguropulus, or Syropulus (Hist. Concil. Florent. ix. 16), is, we believe, more correct. The emperor Joannes Pa-laeologus II. was extremely anxious, for political reasons, to promote the union of the Greek and Latin churches: the patriarch did not oppose this, but contended for holding the council at Constanti­nople ; but after a time the emperor prevailed on him to alter his determination, and to send legates to the council of Basel, A. d. 1434. (Ada Concil. Basil. Sessio xix.) The heads of the Greek church were, however, drawn over by the pope to embrace his part in the dispute with the council of Basel, and determined to attend the rival council of Ferrara, A. d. 1438, afterwards transferred to Florence. The patriarch Joseph attended this council; and though he vainly attempted, by various devices, to avoid recognising the precedence of the pope, he showed himself a warm supporter of the proposed union, urging upon his companions and attendants the necessity of conciliating the Latins. Towards the close of the council he fell ill, and during his illness was induced to subscribe the dogmas of the Latin church in the points in dispute, partly, according to Sguropulus, by the bad faith of Bessarion, who having, at Joseph's request, read to him the judgments of the fathers on these points, made various omissions and alterations, to suit his purpose. Joseph, however, appears to have made up his mind to yield, and probably only re­quired an excuse: he bitterly rebuked some Greek prelates, who showed less pliability than himself. He died at Florence before the conclusion of the council, June 10. A. d. 1439. Joseph wrote Epis-tola ad Concilium Basiliense and Bulla plumbea missa Concilio Basiliensi, given in a Latin version in the Concilia. His IVe^u??, Sententia, delivered at the Council of Florence, and his TeXevrcua 7*/cJJu?), Eactrema Senientia, written the night of his death, are also given in Greek and Latin in the Concilia. (Vols. xii. col. 545, 571, xiii. col. 482, 494, ed. Labbe ; vols. viii. col. 1189, 1215, ix. 393, 405, ed. Hardouin ; vols. xxix. 97, 126, xxxi. 994, 1008, ed. Mansi.) And one or two of his speeches are given by Sguropulus. (Concilia, vol. cit.; Sguropulus, Historia Concil. Florentine pas­sim ; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. ii. Appendix, p. 1 ] 8 ; Fabric. Bibl Gr. vol. xi. p. 479.)

8. flavius. [See below.]

9. genesius. [genesius ]

10. gorionides, or joseph ben gorion, or josippon. The Jewish historian, Flavius Jose

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