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IOPHON.

et Studiis Doctrinae, with the fragments, Lips. 1836; Kb'pke, Delonis Poetae Vita et Fragmentis, Berol. 1836, and in the Zeitschrift fur Altertfiums-wissenschaft, 1836, pp.589—605; Welcker, die Griech. Trag. pp. 938—958; Fabric. Bill. Grace. vol. ii. pp. 307, 308; Kayser, Hist. Grit. Trag. Grace. Gotting. 1845, pp. 175—190.)

2. Ion, of Ephesus, a rhapsodist in the time of Socrates, from whom one of Plato's dialogues is named, has been confounded by many writers with Ion of Chios ; but Bentley has clearly proved that they are different from the character and circum­stances of the rhapsodist as described by Plato. (Epist. ad Mill.; Nitzsch, Proleg. ad Plat. Ion.; Kayser, Hist. Grit. Trag. Graec. p. 180.) [P. S.]

10'NICUS ('Icon/eta), a physician of Sardis in Lydia, whose father had also followed the same profession with credit. He studied medicine under Zenon, and was a fellow-pupil of Oribasius and Magnus, in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. Eunapius, who has given a short ac­count of his life (De Vit. Philos. p. 174, ed. Ant­werp.), says that he was not only well skilled in all the branches of medical science, but that he had also paid attention to rhetoric, logic, and poetry, and enjoyed the highest reputation. [W. A. G.]

10'NIDES ('Icc^Ses or 'luwaSes), a name borne by four nymphs believed to possess healing powers. They had a temple on the river Cytherus in Elis, and derived their name from a mythical Ion, a son of Gargettiis, who was believed to have led a colony from Athens to those districts. The story un­doubtedly arose from the existence of a mineral spring on the spot where their sanctuarjr stood. (Paus. vi. 22. § 4; Strab. viii. p. 356.) [L. S.]

IOPE ('I^Trr?), a daughter of Aeolus and wife of Cepheus, from whom the town of Joppa derived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) In the legends of Perseus and Andromeda, she is called Cassio- peia. [L. S.]

IOPHON CloQuv). The legitimate son of Sopho­cles, by Nicostrate, was a distinguished tragic poet. He brought out tragedies during the life of his father ; and, according to a scholiast, gained a bril­liant victory (epfrojtre Aaju-nyws). He is said to have contended with his father ( Vit. Soph.) ; and it is recorded that he gained the second place in a contest with Euripides and Ion, in b. c. 428. (Arg. in Eur. Hipp.) He was still flourishing in b.c. 405, the year in which Aristophanes brought out the Frogs. The comic poet speaks of him as the only good tragedian left, but expresses a doubt whether he will sustain his reputation without the help of his father (who'had lately died); thus in­sinuating either that Sophocles had assisted lophon in the composition of his plays, or that lophon was bringing out his father's posthumous tragedies as his own. The number of lophon's tragedies was 50, of which the following are mentioned by Suidas: *Ax(M€ifs, Ti7\€(/>os, 'AKTofaj', sl\lov irepcris, A€£a(jL€if6s9 Bafcxaf5 TtevQetis: the last two titles evidently belong to one play. To these should perhaps be added a satyric drama entitled Au\^5of. (Clem. Alex. Slrom. i. p. 280.) Of all his dramas, only a very few lines are preserved. For the cele­brated story of his undutiful charge against his father, see sophocles. Sophocles is said to have been reconciled to lophon, who placed an inscrip­tion on his father's tomb, in which particular men­tion was made of the composition of the Oedipus at Cotonus. (Val. Max. viii. 7. ext. 12.) There is a

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JORNANDES.

curious passage of the same grammarian (Cramer, Anecd. vol. iv. p. 315), attributing the composition of the Antigone to lophon. (Suid. s. v. 'loQwv, 2o<poK\rjs; Aristoph. Ran. 73—78, and schol.; Welcker, die Griech. Trag. pp. 975—977 ; Kayser, Hist. Grit. Trag. Graec. pp. 76—79 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 308, 309.)

2. Of Gnossus, a composer of oracles in hexa­meter verse, quoted by Pausanias as preserving some of the oracles of Amphiaraus. (i. 34. § 3.) [P. S.]

IOPHOSSA ('Io$&?(nra), a daughter of Aeetes, commonly called Chalciope. (Schol. ad Apollon. Ithod. ii. 1H5, 1153 ; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.]

IOPS (vlo^), a hero who had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 12. § 4.) [L. S.]

JORNANDES, or JORDA'NES, as he is called, perhaps correctly, in the Codex Ambrosia-nus, and some other MS. of his works, an historian of more renown than merit, yet of such great im­portance, that without him our knowledge of the Goths and other barbarians would be very limited. He lived in the time of the emperor Justinian I., or in the sixth century of our era, but we know neither the time of his birth nor that of his death. He was a Goth ; his father's name was Alanova-muthis, and his grandfather, Peria, had been no-tarius, or private and state secretary, to Candax,-king of the Alani. Jornandes held the same office at the court of the king of the Alani, adopted the Christian religion, took orders, and was made a bishop in Italy. It is said that he was bishop of Ravenna, but this opinion does not rest on sufficient evidence, and is the less credible as his name does not occur in the " Vitae Episcoporum Ravenna-tium " by Agnellus, who lived in the middle of the ninth century.

Jornandes is the author of two historical works written in the Latin language. The first is entitled De Getarum (Gothorum) Origine et Reims Gestis, in which he relates the history of the Goths from their earliest migrations down to their sub­jugation by Belisarius in 541 ; adding, how­ever, some facts which took place after that event, from which we may infer the time when he wrote. Aschbach, the eminent author of the Geschichte der WestgotJien, characterises this work as follows: " In many respects this work is very valuable, be­cause the author has derived much information from the old traditions of the Goths, and relates things which we find neither in the Roman nor in the Greek writers. In other respects, however, it de­serves very little credit, since it is written without any criticism, abounding in fables, and betraying every where the author's extreme ignorance. He is the principal source of the common belief which confounded the Goths, the Getae, and the Scythi­ans, being misled by earlier Roman and Greek writers, with whose works he was well acquainted; and he thus ascribes to the Goths whatever the ancients report of the Scythians and Getae, and places the emigration of the Goths in the remotest time. His accounts of the settlement of the Goths on the Black Sea, and their extensive dominions and great power during the reign of king Herman-ric (in the middle of the fourth centuiy), are among the best parts of his work." Jornandes is chiefly to be blamed for his partiality to his countrymen, incorrectness, confusion of events, anachronisms, and want of historical knowledge. According to his own statement (Dedication to Castalius),. his book is an extract from the lost history of

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