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On this page: Iodameia – Iolaus – Iollas – Joel – Pole

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IOLAUS.

IODAMEIA (*fo8a|U6ia), a priestess of Athena Itonia, who once, as she entered the sanctuary of the goddess by night, was changed into a block of stone on seeing the head of Medusa, which was worked in the garment of Athena. In commemo­ ration of this event, a fire was every day kindled on the altar of lodameia by a woman amid the exclamation, *' lodameia lives and demands fire ! " (Pans. ix. 34. § 1.) [L. S.]

JOEL ('Iw^'Aos), a Byzantine historian, lived at the end of the 12th, and in the beginning of the ] 3th century, and wrote Xpovoypdtyia Iv owttyei, being a short narrative of the most memorable events of history, especially Byzantine. The work begins with Adam, and finishes with the death of the emperor Alexis Ducas Murzuphlus, and the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, in 1204. From the lamentations with which he ends his history, one might conclude that he witnessed the capture of the Greek capital. The whole work is of little importance, though the latter part of it is of some value for Byzantine history. The first edition was published by Leo Allatius, with notes and a Latin translation, Paris, 1651, fol., together with Georgius Acropolita, The second edition, in the Venice collection of the Byzantines, and the third by Immanuel Bekker, together with Acropolita and Constantine Manasses, Bonn, 1837, 8vo., are reprints of the Paris edition. (Fabric. Bill. Graze, vol. vii. p. 773; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. p. 281.) [W. P.]

lOLA'US ('loAaos), a son of Iphicles and Au- tomedusa, and consequently a relation of Heracles, whose faithful charioteer and companion he was. [heracles.] He is especially celebrated for his attachment to the descendants of the hero, even after his death, for he is said to have come to their assistance from the lower world ; for when Eurys- theus demanded of the Athenians the surrender of the children of Heracles, who had been kindly re­ ceived there, lolaus, who was already dead, begged of the gods of the lower world permission to re­ turn to life, to assist the children of his master. The request being granted, he returned to the upper world, slew Eurystheus, and then went to rest again. (Pind. Pytli. ix. 137; Eurip. Hera- clidae.) After Heracles had instituted the Olym­ pian games, lolaus won the victory with the horses of his master, and Heracles sent him to Sardinia at the head of his sons whom he had by the daughters of Thespius. He there took from the savage inhabitants the finest portions of their country, civilised them, and was afterwards • ho­ noured by them with divine worship. From Sar­ dinia he went to Sicily, and then returned to He­ racles shortly before the death of the latter. After the burning of Heracles, when his remains could not be discovered, lolaus was the first that offered sacrifices to him as a demigod* (Paus. v. 29 ; Diod. iv. 29, 30, 40.) According to Pausanias (ix. 23), lolaus died in Sardinia, whereas, accord­ ing to Pindar (Ol. ix. 149, Pytli. ix. 137 ; Hygin. Fab. 103 ; Apollod. ii. 4. § 11, 5. § 2, 6. § 1), he was buried in the tomb of his grandfather, Amphi­ tryon, and was worshipped as a hero. His de­ scendants in Sardinia were called 'IoAae?s (Strab. v, p. 225) and lolaenses, and in the time of Pausa­ nias (x. 17. § 4), a town iolaia still existed in Sardinia, where lolaus was worshipped as a hero. [L. S.]

IOLAUS. [claudius julius, p. 778, a.l

ION.

POLE ('IcfATj), the last beloved of Heracles, and a daughter of Eurytus of Oechalia. [heracles.] According to some writers, she was a half-sister of Dryope. (Anton. Lib. 32; Ov. Met. ix. 325, &c.) [L. S.]

IOLLAS or IOLAUS ('lo'Aas or 'lo'AAas), son of Antipater, and brother of Cassander, king of Macedonia. He was one of the royal youths who, according to the Macedonian custom, held offices about the king's person, and was cup-bearer to Alexander at the period of his last illness. Those writers who adopt the idea of the king having been poisoned, represent lollas as the person who actually administered the fatal draught, at the banquet given to Alexander by Medius, who, ac­ cording to this story, was an intimate friend of lollas, and had been induced by him to take part in the plot. (Arrian, Anab. vii. 27 ; Plut. A lex. 77; Curt. x. 1.0. § 14; Justin. xii. 14; Vitruv. viii. 3. § 16.) It is unnecessary to point out the absurdity and inconsistency of this tale. (See Stahr's Aristotelia vol. i. p. 136, &c.; and Blakes- ley's Life of Aristotle, p. 85, &c.) Plutarch him­ self tells us expressly that it was never heard of until six years afterwards, when Olympias availed herself of this pretext as an excuse for the cruelties she exercised upon the friends and adherents of Antipater. lollas was then dead, but she caused his grave to be opened, and desecrated with every mark of indignity. (Plut. Aleoe. 77 ; Diod. xix. 11.) The period or occasion of his death is nowhere mentioned: the last we hear of him is in B. c. 322, when he accompanied his sister Nicaea to Asia, where she was married to Perdiccas. (Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 70, a, ed. Bekk.) The story of Hyperides having proposed the voting a reward to lollas as the murderer of Alexander ( Vit. X. Oratt. p. 849), which is in direct contradiction to the statement of Plutarch already cited, is unquestionably a mere invention of later times. (See Droysen, Hellenism. vol. i. p. 705.) [E. H. B.] 3 IOLLAS, f IOLAUS, or IOLAS ('lo'AAay, 'loAaos, or 'loAas), a writer on materia medica, born in Bithynia, who was probably a contemporary of Heracleides of Tarentum, or a little anterior to him, in the third century B. c., -as he is mentioned in com­ pany with him by Dioscorides. (De Mat. Med. i. Praef. vol. i. p. 2.) He is mentioned also by Celsus (De Medic, v. 22, p. 93), Pliny (//. N. xx. 73,76), Galen (De Antid. i. 2, vol. xiv. p. 7), St. Epipha- nius (Adv. Haeres. i. 1. 3. p. 3.), and the scholiast' onNicander (T/ier. v. 683), but nothing is known of the events of his life, nor are any of his writings preserved. [W. A. G.]

ION (rl(ov\ the fabulous ancestor of the lonians, is described as a son of Apollo by Creusa, the daughter of Erech theus and wife of Xutlms. (Apollod. i. 7. § 3 ; creusa.) The most cele­brated story about him is that which forms the subject of the Ion of Euripides. Apollo had visited Creusa in a cave below the Propylaea, and when she gave birth to a son, she exposed him in the same cave. The god, however, had the child conveyed to Delphi, and there had him educated by a priestess. When the boy had grown, and Xuthus and Creusa came to consult the oracle about the means of obtaining an heir, the answer was, that the first human being which Xuthus met on leaving the temple should be his son. Xuthus met Ion, and recognised him as his son ; but Creusa, imagining him to be a son of her husband by a

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