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JOANNES.

4. antiochenus and scholasticus, from his native place Antioch, and the profession of ad­vocate, which he once exercised there (drro (rxo\affTiKwv). At a later period of his life he entered into holy orders, and was ordained priest. He was then named Apocrisiarius, agent or charge d'affaires of the church of Antioch at the imperial court in Constantinople towards the end of the reign- of Justinian. In A. d. 565 he was elevated to the vacant patriarchate of Constanti­nople, and he died on the 31st of August, a. d. 578, in the 12th year of the reign of Justin the younger. (Theophanes, Chronographia, p. 203, fol. Par. 1655, Assemani, Bibl. Jur. Orient, vol. iii. p. 340—343.)

Joannes published a collection of canons in 50 titles. Assemani (vol. i. p. 114) thinks that it was published and prescribed by him as a rule to the bishops of the patriarchate, after he was made patriarch. In the preface to the work, however, he himself assumes no higher rank than presbyter. ,' This collection is entitled 'Svvaywyr) Ka.v6v<av 6is v' tit\ovs Sttjprjyuei/i?, and is founded on the basis of a previous collection, which is attributed by some manuscripts to Stephanus Ephesius. It consists chiefly of decrees of early councils, and letters of St. Basil. The ^vvaycoytj of Joannes (which was one of the earliest compilations of the kind) enjoyed for some centuries great credit in the Oriental church, received from time to time cor­rections and additions, and was translated into several foreign languages. Assemani (vol. i. p. 60) cites the Syrian translation: Biener (de CoUectio-nibus Canonum, p. 49) treats of the Sclavonic translation ; and Beveridge (Synodicon^ p. 211) mentions an Egyptian collection of Abnalcassabi in 51 titles, resembling that of Joannes. The 2Bw-aytayr) of Joannes is printed in Voelli et Justelli Bibliotheca Jur. Canon, vol. ii. p. 499—602.

A collection of 87 chapters, intended as a sup­plement to the former ^vvaywyrf, was published (if we may credit the title to the work) by Joannes, after he was .in possession of the metropolitan throne, and after the death of Justinian. It was published, therefore, between a. d. 565 and 578. As the former collection contained the rules of purely ecclesiastical origin (kcwoj/cs), the present was intended to comprehend the enactments of the civil law (vdfJioi) relating to the affairs of the church, and was compiled from the No veils of Justinian. Joannes makes abridged extracts from Novells 3, 5, 6, 32, 46, 56, 57, 83, 120, 123, 131, usually employing the words of the original text.

These 87 chapters have in several catalogues of manuscripts been wrongly attributed to Balsamo. Some notices of their contents, and some extracts from them, were given by Assemani (Bibl. Jur. Orient, vol. ii. p. 451—459): and Biener has treated of them with his usual sagacity and learn­ing. (Geschichte der Novellen, p. 167—173, p. 584 —597.) They were first printed at length by Heimbach in 1840. (Anecdota, vol. ii.)

A Nomocanon (combination of Kav6vts and vouoi) in 50 titles, with a supplement of 21 chapters, was subsequently compiled from the two works of Joannes. This compilation (printed in Voel. et Justell. Bibl. Jur. Canon, vol. ii. p. 603—672) has been wrongly attributed to Joannes himself. The author of it is uncertain, but it was probably com­posed by Theqdoretus, bishop of Cyrrhus (now Khoros, in Syria). The 87 chapters of Joamies

IOCASTUS.

were much referred to by subsequent compilers, as by Arsenius in his Synopsis Canonum. (Heimbach, Anecdota^ vol. ii. in Prolegomenis; Zachariae, Hist. Jur. Gr. Rom. Delin. § 22 ; Mortreueil, Histoire du Droit Byzantin, vol. i. p. 201—211, p. 288; Booking, Institutionen^ vol. i. p. 102, 103.)

5. nomophylax. He is commonly called a scholiast on the Basilica, but was rather a jurist, whose Scholia are appended to that work. In the heading of the Scholia taken from Joannes he is called, from his office, Joannes Nomophylax, and sometimes /car* Qoxhv* Nomophylax alone. In the Scholia (vol. ii. p. 549—648, vol. iii. p. 400, ed. Fabrot.) he appears to cite the text of the Basilica ; and Assemani (Bibl. Jur. Orient, vol. ii. p. 415) believes him to have lived about a. d. 1100, under Alexius Comnenus; while Suarez (Notit. Basil. § 42) confounds him with Joannes Antiochenus. In his Scholia appended to the Basilica, he interprets passages in the Digest, the Code, and the Novells. (Schol. Basil, vol. ii. pp. 544, 558, 559, 587, vol. iii. pp. 360, 390, vol. iv. pp. 658, 662.) Constantinus Nicaeus (who, in Basil, vol. iii. p. 208, calls himself a disciple of Stephanus) cites Joannes Nomophylax, with whom he disagrees. (Basil, vol. ii. p. 549.) Joannes is coupled with Dorotheus in Basil, vol. v. p. 410. In Basil, vol. iii. p. 360, and vol. ii. p. 587, we find him citing Athanasius and Theodoras Hermo- polita. From these indications, we believe him to have lived not long after the reign of Justinian, and would explain his apparent citations of the Basilica by supposing that his original citations of the Digest were subsequently adapted to the Basi­ lica—a charge which was frequently made, and which has occasioned much chronological difficulty. Many of the jurists, whose fragments appear ap­ pended to the Basilica, have, for this reason, been referred to too late an age. Thus, every circum­ stance tends to show that Constantinus Nicaeus, who cites Joannes, lived before the compilation of the Basilica, if we except his supposed citations of the Basilica, and of the (TToi%€toi/ of Garidas. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. xii. p. 447; Reiz. ad Theophilum, p. 1236; Pohl, ad Suares. Notit. Basil, p. 138. n. /3 ; Heimbach, de Oricj. Basil. p. 87.) [J. T. G.]

JOANNES ALEXANDRINUS, a physician of Alexandria, who may be supposed to have lived in the seventh or eighth century after Christ, and under whose name are extant some commentaries on two works of the Hippocratic Collection. That on the sixth book De Morbis Popularibus is said to have been translated from Greek into Arabic, and from thence into Latin, in which language it is to be found, to­ gether with Hrnain Ibn Ishak (commonly called by his Latinised name, Joan?iitms\ and other authors, in the edition of the collection called Ar- ticella^ printed at Venice, 1483, fol., and in other editions. His commentary on the De Natura Pu- eri, which is imperfect, was first published in Greek in the second vol. of Dietz's Schol. in Plippocr. et Gal. Regim. Pruss. 8vo. 1834. (See Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. xii. pp. 687-88, ed. vet.) [W. A. G.] IOBATES. [bellerophon.] IOCASTE. [epicaste and oedipus.] IOCASTUS ('lo/cao-ros), a son of Aeolus, king on the coast of Italy in the district of Rhegiuin. (Diod. v. 8 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph, 732; Callim. Fragm. 202, ed. Bentley.) [L. S.j

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