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vnys. Perieg."143), where the extremities of Asia and Libya, India and Aethiopia, were conceived to be close to each other, and where some writers place the Gorgones. (Schol. ad Find. Pyth. x. 72.) The mention, in the verses following, of the griffins and Arimaspae, who are generalty assigned to northern regions, creates some difficulty, though the poet may have mentioned them without mean­ing to place them in the south, but only for the purpose of connecting the misfortunes of lo with the best-known monsters. From the Indian Bos­porus, lo is to arrive in the country of the black people, dwelling around the well of the sun, on the river Aethiops, that is, the upper part of the Nile or the Niger. She is to follow the course of that river, until she comes to the cataracts of the Nile, which river she is again to follow down to the Delta, where delivery awaits her. (Comp. Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 382, &c.; Apollod. ii. 1. § 3 ; Hygin, Fab. 345.)

The mythus of lo is one of the most ancient, and at the same time one of the most difficult to explain. The ancients believed lo to be the moon, and there is a distinct tradition that the Argives called the moon lo. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. 92 ; Suid. and Hesych. s. v. 'Icy.) This opinion has also been adopted by some modern critics, who at the same time see in this mythus a confirmation of the belief in an ancient connection between the religions of Greece and Egypt. (Buttmann, Mytho- log. vol. ii p. ] 79, &c.; Welcker, DieAeschyl. Trilog. p. 127, &c.; Schwenk, Etymol. Mytliol. Andeutun- gen, p. 62, &c. ; Mytholog. der Griecli. p. 52, &c. ; Klausen, in the Rhein. Museum, vol. iii. p. 293, &c.; Voelcker, Mytliol. Geogr. der Griecli. u. Rom. vol. i.) That lo is identical with the moon cannot be doubted (comp. Eurip. Phoen* 1123; Macrob. Sat. i. 19), and the various things related of her refer to the phases and phenomena of the moon, and are intimately connected with the worship of Zeus and Hera at Argos. Her connection with Egypt seems to be an invention of later times, and was probably suggested by the resemblance which was found to exist between the Argive lo and the Egyptian Isis. [L. S.]

JOANNES, Latin emperor of Constantinople, the third son of Everard, count of Brienne, and Agnes, countess of Mumpelgard, was born in 1148. He was one of the leaders of the Latins who took Constantinople in 1204, and in 1210 was chosen king of Jerusalem, which was then in the hands of the Turks. In 1218 he commanded the famous Latin expedition against Egypt, and made himself so conspicuous, through his military skill and un­daunted courage, that he was looked upon as the greatest hero of his time. It was for this reason that in 1228 the Latins of Constantinople chose him, though he was then merely titular king of Egypt, to govern for the minor emperor, Baldwin II.; and in order to strengthen his authority, they invested him with the title and power of em­peror. Although 80 years old, John accepted the offer, but first went to Europe to levy troops, with which he arrived at Constantinople in 1231, where he was crowned with great solemnity, and pleased both the Latins and Greeks by his majestic appear­ance (he was the tallest man they had ever seen) and his energetic administration. Not only un­broken by age, but still uniting the strength of a powerful man with the agility of a youth, he de­fended Constantinople with great success against

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the united armies of Asan, king of Bulgaria, and John Vatatzes, the Greek emperor of Nicaea, as is narrated in the life of the latter. [joannes III.] Constantinople would have fallen but for him. Marvellous stories are told of his bravery and the power of his arm. After a reign of nine years John of Brienne died in 1237, leaving seve­ ral sons ; but he was succeeded on the throne of Constantinople by Baldwin II. A daughter of John of Brienne was married to the emperor Frederic II. of Germany. [joannes III. ; bal- duinus II.] (The sources quoted in the lives of these two emperors ; Du Cange, Histoire de Constantinople sous les Empereurs Fran$ais, p. 88, &c.) [W. P.]

JOANNES I. ZIMISCES ('Icoawrjs t^kt/ctjs),. emperor of Constantinople (a. i>. 969—976), was descended from an illustrious Armenian family. He was the grandson of Theophilus, whose name was; conspicuous during the reign of Romanus I. Le^ capenus, and the grand-nephew of Curcuas, the brother of Theophilus, who was still more eminent. The surname Zimisces was given to Joannes, on ac­count of his diminutive size, that word signifying; in the Armenian language a man of very small sta­ture. Zimisces served from his early youth in the Greek armies, and astonished both his friends and foes by the heroic deeds which he performed on the field of battle. During the regency of Theophano, the widow of the emperor Romanus, Nicephorus Phocas became the leader of the empire, and was, constantly supported by Zimisces, who saved him from ruin when the eunuch Bringas conspired against his life. Believing that the friendship be­tween Nicephorus and Zimisces was only pretended, Bringas wrote to Zimisces, offering him great re­ward—perhaps the crown—if he would kill Nice­phorus, but Zimisces not only showed the letter to; his friend, but urged him to assume the imperial crown. This Nicephorus did in 963, and reigned as colleague of the two minor sons of Romanus and. Theophano, Basil II. and Constantine VIII. Ni­cephorus married the widow Theophano,, and ap­pointed Zimisces second commander of the armies, himself being the first. In this capacity Zimisces performed such extraordinary exploits, and gained such decisive victories, that he became the idol of the army, and was acknowledged to be the first general in the East. The Arabs were then masters of all Syria and Cilicia. In the battle at Adana. (963) they were routed with great slaughter by Zimisces, and 5000 of their veteran troops having entrenched themselves on a steep hill, refusing to surrender, the gallant commander of the Greeks put himself at the head of a chosen body, stormed the entrenchments, and exterminated the infidels. Henceforth that hill was called the bloodhill. In the following year Zimisces conquered the greater part of Cilicia, crossed Mount Amanus, entered Syria, and spread terror through the valley of the Orontes. Mopsuestia, which was then called Massissa, resisted the protracted siege of Nicepho­rus, who gave up all hopes of taking it, and was retiring, when Zimisces approached with a few brave troops, and took the town by storm. His eminent services were rewarded with ingratitude* Through the intrigues of the emperor's brother, Leo, he was deprived of his command, and sent into exile. The empress Theophano, however, who was his mistress in secret, contrived that he should be sent to Chalcedon, opposite Constantinople,

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