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disown the authority of the weak and dissolute Gallienus, who, .however, displayed upon this oc­casion unwonted promptitude and energy, for marching at once into Illyria, he encountered the Usurper at Mursia, where the rebels were defeated, and their leader was slain, or, according to other accounts, stabbed himself, to avoid the torture he anticipated if captured alive. The relentless cruelty displayed by the conqueror upon this occasion to­wards all who had favoured the pretensions of In-genuus has been adverted to in a former article. [gallienus.] According to Ppllio, the insurrec­tion, headed by Ingenuus, broke out in the consul­ship of Fuscus (leg. Tuscus) and Bassus, that is, A. d. 258, the year in which Valerian took his de­parture for the East, but, according to Victor, not until intelligence had been received of the fatal result of the war against Sapor, that is, two or three years later. (Trebell, Poll. Trig. Tyrann.; Victor, de Goes, xxxiii.; Zonar. xii. 24.) [W. R.] INGUIOME'RUS, brother of Sigimer and uncle of Anninius the Cheruscan [arminius]. Inguiomerus had been the adherent of Rome, but afterwards joined his nephew and his own tribe, and narrowly escaped with his life, when the Che-ruscansj owing in great measure to his advice, were in A. d. 16 defeated by the Romans under Ger-manicus on the plain ofv Idistavisus, between the Visurgis (Weser) and the neighbouring highlands. In the following .year, envy of the fame or power of Arminius again detached Inguiomerus from the Cheruscans. At the head of his own clients he deserted to Maroboduus, king of the Suevians, with whom he was defeated by Arminius. (Tac. Ann. i. 60, ii. 17, 21, 45, 46.) [W. B. D.]

INNOCENTIUS was bishop of Rome from the commencement of a, d. 402 until his death on the 12th of March, A. d. 417. He took an active part in the proceedings with regard to-Chrysostom, whom he steadily supported while the patriarch was alive, and whose memory he vindicated from insult after death. Against the Novatians he dis­played the most determined hostility, and one of his last acts was the condemnation of Pelagius, a sentence which, as appears evident from his epis­tles, ought to be regarded rather as a concession te the urgent representations of the Carthaginian synod than as the result of full and heartfelt con­viction. In consequence of the widely-diffused reputation enjoyed by Innocentius for learning and prudence, he was constantly consulted upon various points of doctrine and discipline by ecclesiastics at a distance ; and the correspondence in which he thus became engaged with every part of the Chris­tian world was conducted with so much skill, and the replies were couched so judiciously, in a tone of mingled advice, instruction, and authoritative dictation, that the practice of submitting questions of doubt or" difficulty to the head of the Roman see became from this time forward general; and to this epoch we may refer the foundation of those claims to universal spiritual domination so boldly asserted, and, to a certain extent, so successfully maintained by Leo and his successors.

The extant works of this prelate consist entirely of epistles, thirty-four in number, which are almost exclusively of an official character, being addressed to dignitaries, civil and spiritual, and to religious communities, upon topics connected with the re­gulation and welfare of the church. Of these, twenty-one are preserved in the collection of Di- ;


j pnysius"Exiguus ; four are found among the letters of St. Augustin, two were first edited by Hol-stenius from a Vatican MS., the remaining seven were derived from various sources.

The Editio Princeps, containing twenty-one epistles, under the title Decreta Innocentii Papae L VII., appeared in the Colleciio Canonum Dionysii Exigui, fol. Mogunt. 1525 ; the first complete edition, comprising the whole thirty-four epistles, forms the first volume of the Epistolae Pontificiae, published by cardinal Anton. Caraffa, fol. Rom. 1591 ; the best edition is that contained in the Epistolae Pontiftcum JKomanorum of Constant, fol. Paris, 1721, vol. i. pp. 739—931, reprinted in the Bill. Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. pp. 545—612, whose Prolegomena, c. xviii., may be consulted with advantage.

In addition to the above thirty-four, Constant notices a considerable number which have been lost, investigating at the same time their dates and the subjects of which they treated ; he also points out some which are spurious, one, Ad Aurelium Episcopum Carthqginiensem, fabricated by Isidorus Mefcator, two Ad Arcadium Imperatorem, and two from Arcadius, Ad Innocentium. [W. R.]

INNOCENTIUS, a Roman jurist, who lived in the reign of Constantine the Great, and under, his sons Constantius and Constans. Although jurisprudence as a science was now upon the wane, jurists were privileged by the emperors as late as the reign of Constantius ; and, by virtue of such privilege, their writings and opinions were invested with a kind of legislative force. The jurist-made law of the Romans came into existence under the form of authoritative exposition or interpretation, and was more directly binding than what Bentham calls English judge-made law. It was nearly ana-, logous to a parliamentary declaration of the exist* ing law, inasmuch as the jurist, in the exercise of his vocation, was made the representative of the emperor, the supreme power. Eunapius (in Vit. Ckrysanthii, p. 186, ed. Commelin) says that Inno­centius was privileged as a jurist by the emperors under whom he lived. He is not mentioned in the Digest, which contains extracts from no jurist of later date than his.

In the collection of Agrimensores, there is a treat­ise, headed " Ex libro xii. Innocentii de literis et notis juris exponendis,'' or " Innocentius, V- P. auctor." The treatise does not profess to be the original work of a jurist, and is manifestly a com­pilation of much more recent date than the reign of Constantine: nor does it at all resemble the re­mains of legal stenography that we possess under the name of Valerius Probus and other writers of the same class. It relates to the casae which were named after the letters of the alphabet, and the casae appears to have been fundi, or portions of land ; but the mode in which letters were connected with the fundi, so as to designate their qualities and peculiarities of position, has not been satis­factorily explained; and the treatise De Casis Literarum is still perhaps the most enigmatical part of the writings on ancient land-surveying.

Rigaltius, in his first note on the treatise, " Do Casis Literarum," says that an Innocentius, agri-mensor, is mentioned in the 19th book of Ammi-anus Marcellinus, and quotes a passage, whence it would seem that, on some occasion, Innocentius gave instructions which enabled a party of troops sailing up a river to steer by observing certain

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