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On this page: Indiges – Indutiomarus – Inferi – Ingenuus


pliant' at the feet of the conqueror, Scipio not only spared his life and that of his brother, but admitted them to favourable terms, and left them in the en­ joyment of all their former power, on payment only of a sum of money. (Liv. xxviii. 24, 25, 31—34; Polyb. xi. 26, 29, 31—33 ; Diod. xxvi. Exc. Vat. p. 60; Appian, Hisp. 37; Zonar. ix. 10.) This clemency, nevertheless, failed of the desired effect, for the next year (b. c. 205), Scipio having quitted Spain to prepare for the invasion of Africa, Indi- bilis immediately aroused his people to take advan­ tage of the absence of the only general whom there was any cause to fear, and assembled an army of no less than 30,000 foot and 4000 horse. It is pro­ bable that his contempt for the Roman generals, L. Lentulus and L. Manlius Acidinus, whom Scipio had left in Spain, was real, and not assumed, but he quickly found his mistake; they hastened to meet the insurgent army, and a pitched battle en­ sued, in which, after an obstinate contest, the Spaniards were totally defeated, and Indibilis him­ self, who had displayed the utmost courage in the •action, fell on the field. Mandonius escaped with the remnants of the army, but was soon after given up by his own followers to the Roman generals, by whom he was immediately put to death, (Liv. xxix. 1—3 ; Appian, Hisp. 38. [E. H. B.]

INDIGES, plur. INDI'GETES, the name by which indigenous gods and heroes were invoked at Rome, that is, 'such as were believed to have once lived on earth as mortals, and were after their death raised to the rank of gods, e. g. Janus, Picus, Faunus, Aeneas, Evander, Hercules, Latinus, Ro­ mulus, and others. (Serv. ad Aen. xii. 794 ; Liv. viii. 9 ; Virg. Georg. i. 498, Aen. viii. 314, xii. 794 ; Arnob. adv. Gent. i. p. 39.) Thus Aeneas, after his disappearance on the banks of the Nu- micus, became a deus Indiges, pater Indiges, or Jupiter Indiges; and in like manner Romulus be­ came Quirinus, and Latinus Jupiter Latiaris. (Gel- lius, ii. 16 ; Virg., Liv. II. cc.; Sil. Ital.. viii. .39 ; Tibull. ii. 5, 44; Solin. 2; Aurel. Orig. 14.) The Indigetes are frequently mentioned to­ gether with the Lares and Penates (Virg. Georg. i. 498; Lucan, i. 556; Sil. Ital. ix. 294), and many writers connect the Indigetes with those di­ vinities to 4whom a share in the foundation of the Latin and Roman state is ascribed, such as Mars, Venus, Vesta, &c. (Sil. Ital. L c.; Ov. Met. xv. 862 ; Claudian, Bell. Gild. 82; Liv. viii. 9.) Paulus Diaconus (p. 106 in Miiller's edition of Festus) describes the Indigetes as dii, quorum nomina vul- gari non licet, a statement which is repeated by others, though its import is rather obscure. The origin of the name Indigetes was also a matter of dispute, with the ancients (Serv. ad Aen. xii. 794), but they were at all events &eol tyxdpiot, and we are therefore inclined rather to connect the name with induagere than with indigitare, as Festus thinks; in addition to which the plural is not Indigites, but Indigetes. We may therefore define the Indigetes to be indigenous heroes of the coun­ try, whom the grateful veneration of their country­ men raised after their death to the rank of gods. They were regarded as manifestations of the su­ preme deity, and worshipped as the protectors of the country to which they had done good service during their mortal life. [L. S.]

INDUTIOMARUS, or INDUCIOMA'RUS. 1. A distinguished chief of the Allobroges, was the most important witness against M. Fonteius,



when he was accused in B. c. 69 of maladminis­tration in his province of Narbonnese Gaul, and defended by Cicero. (Cic. pro Font. 8, 12, 17.) [fonteius, No. 5.]

2. One of the leading chiefs of the Treviri (Treves, Trier), and the head of the independent party. When Caesar marched into the territory of the Treviri in b. c. 54, just before his second invasion of Britain, Indutiomarus, who had made every preparation for war, found himself desertetl by many of his partizans, and was obliged to sub­mit to Caesar. The latter accepted his excuses, but at the same time used all his influence to induce the leading men of the nation to. side with Cinge-torix, the great rival of Indutiomarus, (though he was his own son-in-law,) and the head of the Roman party. Finding himself thus deprived of much of his power among his own people, Indu­tiomarus became a bitterer enemy than ever of the Romans, and only waited for a favourable oppor­tunity of taking his revenge. This arrived sooner than might have been expected. In consequence of the scarcity of corn Caesar was obliged to sepa­rate his troops for their winter-quarters, and ta station them in different parts of Gaul. Indutio­marus immediately urged on Ambiorix and Cativol-cus, chiefs of the Eburones, to attack the Roman legion stationed in their country ; and he himself soon afterwards marched against Labienus, "who was encamped among the Remi, on the confines of the Treviri, but deterred by Caesar's victory over the Nervii, he withdrew into his own country. Here he raised fresh troops, and again marched against Labienus, whose camp he surrounded ; but being surprised by a sudden sally, his troops were put to flight, and he himself was killed in the rout while crossing a river. His death was deeply felt by his people. (Caes. B. G. v. 3, 26,53, 55, 58; DionCass. xl. 11, 31.)

INFERI, signifies the gods of the lower world, in contradistinction from those of heaven, or from the Olympian gods. In Greek the Jnferi are de- signated by the terms of /carto, of xfloVioi, of vtto* 7o?«f, of fvepde, or of v7T€V€p0€ Scot; whereas the gods of heaven, Superi, are termed of #i><w, viraroi and otipdvtoi. But the word inferi is still more frequently used to designate the dead, in contra­ distinction from those living upon the earth (Apu- lei. de Mag. p. 69) ; so that apud inferos is equiva­ lent to "in Hades," or "in the lower world." The Inferi therefore comprise all the inhabitants of the lower world, the gods, viz. Aides or Pluto, his wife Persephone, the Erinnyes, and others, as well as the souls of departed men. The gods of the lower world are treated of in separate articles. The descriptions of the proper burial of the dead, whereby alone the souls were enabled to come to rest in the lower world ; of the sacrifices offered on the tombs of the dead, as well as of the notions entertained by the ancients about the conditions of the souls of the departed in their future state, be­ long to a Dictionary of Antiquities ; while the roads leading to the lower world and the various sites assigned to it by the ancients are questions which belong to mythical geography. [L. S.]

INGENUUS,one of the thirty tyrants enume­rated by Trebellius Pollio [see aureolus], was governor of Pannonia at the period when Valerian set out upon his campaign against the Persians. Fearing lest he should excite jealousy by his po­pularity among the soldiers, he resolved at once to

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