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was educated at ^Babylon, and did not Become ac­quainted with the Greek language till a late period of his life* After having lived at Babylon for a number of years, he was taken prisoner and sold as a slave to a Syrian, who, however, appears to have set him free again. He is said to have acquired such a perfect knowledge of Greek, that he even distinguished himself as a rhetorician. (Suidas, s. v. 'l<fyt§Ai%os; Schol. ad Phot. Bibl. Cod. 94, p. 73, ed. Bekker.) He was the author of a love story in Greek, which, if not the earjiest, was^ at least ^one_ j>f JJie.; first prpductipns of this kind in Grejekjiterature.: It bore the title Ba€v\uvtKd9 and contained"the story of two lovers, Sjinonis and Rhodanes.^ According to Suidas, it consisfe"d""oF 39 books; but Photius (Bibl. Cod. 94), who gives a tolerably full epitome of the work, mentions only 17. (Comp. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 166 j Suid. s. vv. ydp/Jios, <{)d<r(JLa.) A perfect copy of the work in MS. existed down to the year 1671, when it was destroyed by fire. A few fragments of the original work are still extant, and a new one of some length has recently been discovered by A. Mai. (Nov. Collect. Script. Vet. vol. ii. p. 349, &c.) The epitome of Photius and the fragments are collected in Chardon de la RochetteV Melanges de Critique et de Philologie^ pp. 18, &c., 34, &c., 53, &c., and in Passow's Corpus Erotic, vol. i.; comp. Fabric. 'Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 152, &c. ; Vossius, De Hist. Graec. p. 275, ed. Westermann.

2. A celebrated Neo-Platonic philosopher j was born at Chalcis in Coele-Syria, and was perhaps a descendant of No. 1. He was a pupil of Anatolius and Porphyrius. Respecting his life we know Very little beyond the fact that he resided in Syria till his death, making every year an excursion to the hot springs of Gadara. He died in the reign of Constantine the Great, and probably before a. d. 333. (Suidas, s.v. 'Ioju£Aixos; Eunapius,-/aw5focA.) He had studied with great zeal the .philosophy of Plato and Pythagoras, and was also acquainted with the theology and philosophy of the Chaldaeans and Egyptians. The admiration which he enjoyed among his contemporaries was so great that they declared him to be equal to Plato himself, and that the difference of time was the only one existing between them. (Julian, Orat. iv. p. 146, Epist. 40.) We cannot join in this admiration, for al­though he pretended to be a follower of Plato, his Platonism was so much mixed up with notions and 'doctrines derived from the East, and with those of other Greek philosophers, especially Pythagoras, that it may justly be termed a syncretic philosophy. By means of this philosophy, which was further combined with a great deal of the superstition of the time, he endeavoured to oppose and check the progress of Christianity. He did not acquiesce in the doctrines of the earlier New Platonists, Por­phyrius and Plotinus, who regarded the perception and comprehension of the Deity, by means of ecsta­sies, as the object of all philosophy; but his opinion was that man could be brought into direct commu­nion with the Deity through the medium of theurgic rites and ceremonies, whence he attached parti­cular importance to mysteries, initiations, and the like.

lamblichus was the author of a considerable number of works, of which a few only have come ilown to us. The most important among them are: 1. Hep! TLvOaySpov alpeffeus, on the philosophy of -Pythagoras. It was intended as a preparation for



the study of Plato, and consisted originally of ten books, of which five only, are extant. The first of them, entitled Hepl rov TLvQayopiKov jSfov, contains a detailed account of the life of Pythagoras and his school, but is an uncritical compilation from earlier works ; as however these works are lost, the compila­tion of lamblichus is not without its peculiar value to us. This life of Pythagoras was first edited by J. Arcerius Theodoretus in Greek and Latin, Franeker, 1598, 4to. The most recent and best editions are those of L. Kuster (Amsterdam, 1707, 4to.) and Th. Kiessling (Leipzig, 1815, 2 vols. 8vo.) The second book, entitled TIporpeirTiKol \6yoi €is <j>t\o(ro(j>lav9 form's a sort of introduction to the study of Plato, and is, like the former, for the most part compiled from the works of earlier writers, and almost without any plan or system. The last chapter contains an explanation of 39 Pythagorean symbols. The first edition is that of Arcerius Theodoretus, and the best that of Th. Kiessling, Leipzig, 1813, 8vo. The third book is entitled Tlepl Kowi)s /mflrf/AaTiKijs eTno-Tif/^s, and contains many fragments of the works of early Pythagoreans, especially Philolaus and Archytas. It exists in MS. in various libraries, but for a long time only fragments were published, until at length Villoisonin his Anecdota Graeca (vol.ii. p. 188, &c.) printed the whole of it, after which it was edited separately by J. G. Fries, Copenhagen, 1790, 4to. The fourth book, entitled Ilcpi r-fjs niko/x<$xov dptfftriTiKfjs elffaywyfis, was first edited by Sam. Tennulius, Deventer and Arnheim, 1668, 4to The fifth and sixth books, which treated on physics and ethics, are lost; but the seventh, entitled Tcfc beoKoyovfJi.wa rys a/nfy^TiK???, is still extant, and has been published by Ch. Wechel (Paris, 1543, 4to) and Fr. Ast (Leipzig, 1817, 8vo.). With regard to the other books of this work, we know that the eighth contained an introduction to music (Iambi. Vit. Pyth. 120, ad Nicom. Arithm. pp. 73, 77, 172, 176), the ninth an introduction to geo­metry (ad Nicom. Arithm. pp. 141, 176), and the tenth the spheric theory of Pythagoras (ad Nicom. Arithm. p. 176).

2. Uepl fjLvffrrjpiow, in one book. An Egyptian priest of the name of Abammon is there introduced as replying to a letter of Porphyrius. [porphy­rius.] He endeavours to refute various doubts respecting the truth and purity of the Egyptian religion and worship, and to prove the divine origin of the Egyptian and Chaldaean theology, as Well as that men, through theurgic rites, may com­mune with the Deity. Many critics have endea­voured to show that this work is not a production of lamblichus, while Tennemann and others have vindicated its authenticity; and there are ap­parently no good reasons why the authorship should be denied to lamblichus. The work has been edited by Ficinus (Venice, 1483, 4to, with a Lat. translation), N. Scutellius (Rome, 1556, 4to.), and Th. Gale (Oxford, 1678, fol., with a Lat. transla­tion). • Besides these works, we have mention of one, Ilepl t/wx?7S, of which a fragment is preserved in Stobaeus (Flor. tit. 25, 6), Epistles, several of which are quoted by Stobaeus, on the gods and other works, among which we may notice a great one, Tlepl rrjs r€\etoTarr}S XaA./u5cu;ojs 4>i\ocro$iay, of which some fragments are preserved by Damag-cius in his work, Tlepl dpxwv. lamblichus further wrote commentaries tm some of Plato's dialogues, viz., on -the Pannenides, Timaeus and Phaedon,

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