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-Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 525 ; Acta Sanctor. Aug» vol. ii. p. 161.) • . .

4.. A monk of the monastery of coccinobaphus, about the time of the emperor Alexius Comnenus (a. d. 1081—1118). He was a man of great learning and an elegant writer. Several of his homilies are extant in MS., and one of them, In Nativitatem B. Mariae, is given both in the ori­ginal Greek and in a Latin version, in the Auctarium Novum of Comb6fis, vol. i. p. 1583. Allatius ascribes this homily, but with hesitation, to another Jacobus, archbishop of Bulgaria, who lived about the middle of the 13th century. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. x. pp.277, 278, 279, 282, 318, vol.xi. p. 637 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 186.)

5. commentator. [See No. 8.]

6. diaconus (the deacon) or of edessa. It is doubtful of what church Jacobus was deacon. Baronius contends for Heliopolis in Coele-Syria, but Pagi and Assemani think he belonged rather to Edessa. He appears to have lived about the middle of the 5th century, and is known only as the author of VitaS. Pelagiae Meretricis Antiochiae, " The Life of Saint Pelagia, the Harlot of Antioch," written in Greek, of which a Latin version, by one Eustachius, is given by Surius, in his De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis9 ad diem VIII. Octcibr. The little that is known of Jacobus is gleaned from this work. (Compare Baronius, Annal. Eccles. ad Ann. 451, cap. cxxvii.; Pagi, Critice in Baronium / Assemani, Bibl. Orient, vol. i. p. 258.)

7. Of edessa, the elder, called also by a Latin­ized form of his Syrian cognomen baradaeus, and by the .Greeks Zanzalus (Zav£a\os)9 a word which Nicephorus Callisti interprets as meaning " poor," was originally a monk in the monastery of Phasilta. and was elevated to the bishopric of Edessa a. d. 541. He took a leading part in the Monophysite council, in which Paulus was elected patriarch of Antioch of their party. He succeeded in uniting the various subdivisions of the Mono-physites into one sect, and they have received from him the name of Jacobites. He died a. d. 578. The Nestorians speak of him as patriarch of the Jacob­ites, but this is not correct: he never attained any higher dignity than that of bishop of Edessa ; the error has probably arisen from his great influence in his party, and from his having given name to them. Both Jacobites and Nestorians have the most ab­surd and exaggerated stories respecting him : the Jacobites affirm that he ordained two patriarchs, one archbishop, twenty bishops, and a hundred thousand priests and deacons: the Nestorians that he ordained eighty thousand priests and deacons. He has a place in the calendar of the Jacobites. He composed an Anaphora or Liturgyr, of which a Latin version is given in" the Liturgiae Orientates of Renaudot, vol. ii. p. 333. Cave and others ascribe to him the Catechesis of the Jacobites, which is one of their symbolic books; but Assemani has shown that it is of later date. (Niceph. Callist. H. E. xviii. 52 ; Assemani, Bibl. Orient, vol. ii. p. 62, &c. ; Cave,/fiwtf. Litt. vol. i. p. 524 ; Renaudot, /. c. and notes on p. 342;)

8. Of edessa, the younger, known also by the designations of doctor, and commentator, and interpres librorum. He appears to have been appointed to the bishopric of Edessa a. d. 651. The date and place of his birth are not mentioned, but he must have been comparatively young at the time of his elevation to his bishopric, for he held it


nearly sixty years, dying a. d. 710, He was perhaps present at a synod convened by the patri­arch of the Jacobites a. d. 706; but the passage in which this is recorded is obscure and ambiguous. His memory is highly reverenced, and he has a place in the calendar. both of the Maronite and Jacobite churches, and his opinions are cited with great regard by subsequent Syriac writers. He wrote Commentaries on the Scriptures, and a Com­mentary on the Isagoge of Porphyry ; also a work called Chronicon, or Annales, which is not known to be extant ; a Liturgy; a Baptismal Service; Ecclesiastical Canons, and Letters. He was the author of a Syriac Grammar, and to him is ascribed the restoration of the purity of the Syriac tongue, which had begun to degenerate. He translated the Praedicamenta, Analytica, and De Elocutione Ora­torio, of Aristotle, and the Homiliae Epiihroniae of Severus of Antioch ; and, perhaps, the works of some other of the Greek fathers. Several of his works are extant: a Latin version of his Liturgy is given in the Liturgiae Orientates (vol. ii. p. 371) of Renaudot, who has impugned the orthodoxy of Jacobus, but he is vindicated by Assemani. (Re­naudot, Liturgiae Orientates, 1. c., and notes on pp. 380, &c. ; Assemani, Bibl. Orient, vol. i. p. 468, &c.; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 524.)

9. Of edessa, the deacon. [See No. 6.]

10. interpres librorum. [See No. 8.]

11. magnus or.the great. [See No. 13.]

12. Of nimuza (Ni/xoi^a), a Syrian hermit, whose austerities are described in the Philotheus of Theodoret. Jacobus was living, and above ninety years of age, when Theodoret wrote the work, to­wards the middle of the 5th century. (Theodor. Philotheus 8. Historia Religiosa, c. 25.)

13. Of nisibis, commonly designated magnus, the Great (6 jue7as, Theodoret.), was born at Nisi-bis, or, as it is sometimes called, Antiocheia ad Myg-donium or Mygdonica, an important town of the Eastern Empire in Mesopotamia on the frontier toward Persia. The time of his birth is not ascer­tained ; it was probably in the latter half of the third century. He embraced a life of solitude and asceticism, living on the mountains, sleeping in thickets and under the open sky in spring, summer, and autumn, and seeking the shelter of a cave during the rigour of the winter. Theodoret ascribes to him the gift of prophecy and other mi­raculous powers. After a journey into Persia, apparently to promote the spread of Christianity there, and to encourage its professors, he returned to the neighbourhood of Nisibis, of which he was afterwards made bishop. On this appointment he left his solitude for the city, but continued his hard fare and coarse clothing. He was the friend and benefactor of the poor, the guardian of widows and orphans, and the protector of the injured. The famous Ephraem, when expelled from home by his father, an idolatrous priest, because he refused to participate'in his idolatrous practices, found a refuge with Jacobus. The Menaea of the Greeks ascribe to him the conversion of many idolaters. If this statement has any foundation in fact, it may possibly have reference to his journey into Persia already mentioned. According to Gennadius, he was one of the sufferers in the great persecution under the successors of Diocletian. Jacobus attended the council of Nice, a.d. 325, and distinguished him­self as one of the champions of the Con substantial party. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. ii. col. 56.) Some

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