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HYGINUS.

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sender of rain. (Hesych. s. v. ifys.) Under the name of Hyetius, the god had an altar at Argos, and a statue in the grove of Trophonius, near Le- badeia. (Paus. ii. 19. § 7, ix. 39, § 3.) Hyes was also a surname of Dionysus, or rather of the Phry­ gian Sabazius, who was identified sometimes with Dionysus, and sometimes with Zeus. (Hesych. Lc.; Strab.-p.471.) [Lu S.J

HYETIUS. [hyes.]

HYGIEIA (fr7f«a), also called Hygea or Hygia, the goddess of health, and a daughter of Asclepius. (Paus. i. 23. § 5, 31. § 5.) In one of the Orphic hymns (66. 7)-she is called the wife of Asclepius ; and Proclus (ad Plat. Tim.) makes her a daughter of Eros and Peitho. She was usually worshipped in the same temples with her father, as at Argos, where the two divinities had a celebrated sanctuary (Paus. ii. 23. § 4, iii. 22. § 9), at Athens (i. 23. § 5, 31, § 5), at Corinth (ii. 4. § 6), at Gortys (viii. 28. § 1), at Sicyon (ii. 11. § 6), at Oropus (i. 34. § 2). At Rome there was a statue of her in the temple of Concordia (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19). In works of art, of which a considerable number has come down to our time, she was represented as a virgin dressed in a long robe, with the expression of mildness and kindness, and either alone or grouped with her father and sisters, and either sitting or standing, and leaning on her father. Her ordinary attribute is a serpent, which she is feeding from a cup. Although she is originally the goddess of physical health, she is sometimes conceived as the giver or protectress of mental health, that is, she appears as mens sana, or vyfeia (ppev&v (Aeschyl. Eum. 522), and was thus identified with Athena, surnamed Hygieia. (Paus. i. 23. § 5 ; comp. Lucian, pro Laps. 5 ; Hirt. My- thol. Bilderb. i. p. 84.) [L. S.]

HYGIEMON, a very ancient painter of mo­nochromes. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 8. s. 34.) [P. S.j

HYGINUS, GROMA'TICUS, so called from his profession. The Gromatici derived their name from the gruma or gnomon, an instrument used in land surveying and castrainetation. We possess, under the name of Hyginus (or Hygenus, according to the spelling of the manuscripts), fragments con­nected with both these subjects.

In a fragment, de Limitibus Constituendis, which is attributed by its title to ^ae freedman of Augustus, the author speaks of a division of lands in Pan-nonia lately undertaken at the command of Trajan. (Ed. Goes. pp. 150. 209.)

In the collections of Agrimensores, severally edited by Turnebus, Rigaltius, and Goesius, there is also published under the name of Hyginus a fragment De Conditionibus Agrorum (ed. Goes. p. 205). This fragment preserves a clause which was usually contained in the lex agraria of a colony founded by an emperor. The Fragmentum Agra-rium de Limitibus (Goes. p. 215), which is attri-. buted in one manuscript to Hyginus, and in another to Frontinus, is adjudicated by Niebuhr to the latter.

The commentaries of Aggenns Urbicus, and the Ziber Simplwi (Goes, p, 76), preserve some passages from Frontinus and Hyginus, but it is difficult to distinguish the borrowed passages from the addi­tions of the later compiler.

In the Rheinisckes Museum fur Jurisprudents, vol. vii. p. 137, Blume published a treatise de Contro-versiis Agrorum^ which Rudorff once supposed to be the work of Siculus Flaccus {flaccus, siculus],

HYGINUS.

but which, upon probable grounds, was attributed by Blume to Hyginus. It is reprinted by Giraud, in his Rei Agrariae Scriptorum Nobiliores Reliquiae^ p. 54. (Paris, 1843.) While the work of Fron­tinus on the same subject treats of fifteen Contro-versiae, this treats of six only, namely:—1. de Alluvione, atque Abluvione ; 2. de Fine (in which occurs a passage ignorantly transposed from a dif­ferent work of Siculus Flaccus) ; 3. de Loco ; 4. de Modo; 5. de Jure Subsecivorum ; 6. de Jure Ter-ritorii. Under the fifth Controversia, the writer, mentions constitutions of Vespasian, Titus, Domi-tian, and Divus Nerva. This agrees with the inference as to the date of Hyginus Gromaticus, derivable from the fragment de Limitibus Consti* tuendis.

The difficulties of the subject, and the obscurities of the style, added to the confusion and corruption of the manuscripts, render these works exceedingly crabbed. Zeiss, in his essays on the Agrimensores in the Zeitsdirift fur Altertliumswissenschafb for 1840, discusses the question of their authorship^ and is disposed, principally on account of a passage in the preface to the Astronomicon, to identify Hyginus Gromaticus with the author of that work and the mythographer. It appears to the writer of this article, that C. Julius Hyginus, the freedman of Augustus, gave origin to the title of most of the works passing under the name of Hyginus. The Augustan author wrote on similar subjects ; and it is 'not unlikely that subsequent text-books were called by the name of their prototypes, as we may designate a spelling-book a Mavor, a book of arith­metic a Cocker, or a jest-book a Joe Miller.

The work of Hyginus de Castrametatione was frequently cited by Lipsius from manuscript, and was first published, with other treatises relating to the art of war, by P. Scriverius, 4to. Antwerp, 1607, and again 1621. There is a subsequent edition by R. H. Scheel, under the title, " Hygini Gromatici et Polybii Megalopolitani de Castris Romanis quae extant, cum notis et animadversionibus, quibus accedunt Dissertationes aliquot de re eadem mili- tari a R. H. S." (4to. Amstel. 1660, and Graevii Thes. Ant. Rom. vol. x. p. 599.) For references to detailed information concerning the Agrimensores and their art, see frontinus. [J. T. G.]

HYGINUS or HI'GINUS, C. JU'LIUS. Suetonius, in his lives of illustrious grammarians, informs us that C. Julius Hyginus was a native of Spain, not, as others had less accurately stated, of Alexandria, that he was a pupil and imitator of the celebrated Cornelius Alexander, surnamed Po-lyhistor [alexander, p. 115], that he was the freedman of Augustus, and that he was placed at the head of the Palatine library. We learn from the same authority that he lived upon terms of close intimacy with the poet Ovid and with C* Licinius, " the historian and consular," a personage not mentioned elsewhere, and that having fallen into great poverty, he was supported in old age by the liberality of the latter, but no hint is given of the causes which led to this reverse of fortune.

We find numerous references in Pliny, Gellius, Servius, Macrobius, and others, to various works by " Hyginus " or " Julius Hyginus," which are generally supposed to have been the productions of the Hyginus who was the freedman of Augustus. Of these we may notice,—

1. De Urbibus Italicis, or De Sitit Urbium Itali-carum, in two books at least. (Macrob* Sat. i. 7

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