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On this page: H Yades – Hyas – Hybreas – Hybrias – Hydarnes – Hydrelus – Hyes – Iiyale


them with Agraiilos, Herse, and Pandrosos (Schol. ad Apollon. Rlwd. i. 211), -or with the Hyades. (Serv. ad Aen. i. 748.) [L. S.].

H YADES ('Ta$e*), that is, the rainy, the name of a class of nymphs, whose number, names, and descent, are described in various ways by the an­ cients. Their parents were Atlas and Aethra (Ov. Fast. v. 169, &c.), Atlas and Pleione (Hygin. Fab. 192), or Hyas and Boeotia (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21); and others call their father Oceanus, Melisseus, Cadmilus, or Erechtheus. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Theon. ad Arat. Pliaen. 171; Serv. ad Aen. i. 748.) Thales mentioned two, and Euripides three Hyades (Theon, /. c.), and Eustathius (ad Hoin. p. 1156) gives the names of three, viz. Am­ brosia, Eudora, and Aesyle. Hyginus (Fab. ] 82), on the other hand, mentions Idothea, Althaea, and Adraste ; and Diodorus (v. 52) has Philia, Coronis, and Cleis. Other poets again knew four, and Hesiod (ap. Theon. I. c.) five, viz. Phaesyle, Co­ ronis, Cleeia, Phaeote, and Eudora. (Comp. the five different names in Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 138;lHygin. Fab. 182, 192.) But the common number of the Hyades is seven, as they appear in the constellation which bears their name, viz., Am­ brosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyene, or Dione. (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21 ; Hesych. s. v.) Pherecydes, the logographer, who mentioned only six, called them the Dodonaean nymphs, and the nurses appointed by Zeus to bring up Dionysus. In this capacity they are also called the Nysaean nymphs. (Apollod. iii. 4. § 3; Ov. Fast.v. 167, Met. iii, 314 ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 748 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. ]155.) When Lycurgus threatened the safet}r of Dionysus and his com­ panions, the Hyades, with the exception of Am­ brosia, fled with the infant god to Thetis or to Thebes, where they entrusted him to Ino (or Juno), and Zeus showed them his gratitude for having saved his son, by placing them among the stars. (Hygin. Poet. Asir. ii. 21.) Previous to their being thus honoured, they had been old, but been made young again by Medeia, at the request of Dionysus. (Hygin. Fab. 182 ; Ov. Met. vii. 295.) As nymphs of Dpdona. they were said, in some traditions, to have brought up Zeus. (Schol. ad Horn. II. xviii. 486.) The story which made them .the daughters of Atlas relates that their num­ ber was twelve or fifteen, and that at first five of them were placed among the stars as Hyades, and the seven (or ten) others afterwards under the name of Pleiades, to reward them for the sisterly love they had evinced after the death of their brother Hyas, who had been killed in Libya by a wild beast. (Hygin. Fab. 192 ; Ov. Fast. v. 181; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1155.) Their name, Hyades, is derived by the ancients from their father, Hyas, or from Hyes, a mystic surname of Dionysus ; and according to others, from their position in the heavens, where they formed a figure resembling the Greek letter T. The Romans, who derived it from i/s, a pig, translated the name by Suculae (Cic. de Nat* JDeor. ii. 43.) ; but the most natural deriva­ tion is from vW, to rain, as the constellation of the Hyades, when rising simultaneously with the sun, announced rainy and stormy weather. (Cic. I. o. j Ov. Fast. v. 165 ; Horat, Carm. i. 3. 14 ; Virg. Aen. iii. 516 ; Gell. xiii. 9.) [L. S.]

IIYALE, a nymph belonging to the train of Diana. (Ov. Met. iii. 171; Virg. Georg. iv. .335, with the note of Seryius.) £.L, S.J i


HYAS ("Tciy). The name of the father and brother of the Hyades. (Hygin. Poet. Asir. ii. 21; Ov. Fast. v. 181 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1155.) The father was married to Boeotia, and was looked upon as the ancestor of the ancient Hyantes. (Plin. H. N. iv. 12 ; cbmp. Muller, Qrchom. p. 124.) His son, or the brother of the Hyades, was killed in Libya by an animal, a serpent, a boar, or a lion. (Hygin. Fab. 192.) [L. S.]

HYBREAS ("repe'as), of Mylasain Caria, was, according to Strabo, the greatest orator of his time. His father left him nothing but a mule and cart, with which he gained his living for some time by carrying wood. He then went to hear Diotrephes at Antioch, and, on his return, he became an dyopavofjios in his native city. Having gained some property in this occupation, he applied him­ self to public speaking and public business, and soon became the leading man in the city. There is a celebrated saying of his, addressed to Euthy- demus, who was the first man in the city while he lived, but who made a somewhat tyrannical use of his influence: " Euthydemus, thou art a necessary evil to the state, for we can neither live under thee nor without thee." By the boldness with which he expostulated with Antony, when the triumvir was plundering Asia in the year after the battle of Philippi (b. c. 41), Hybreas rescued his native city, from the imposition of a double tax. " If," said he to the triumvir, "you can take tribute twice a year, you should be able also to make for us a summer twice and an autumn twice." (Plut. Anton. 24.) When Labienus, with the Parthian s under Pacorus, invaded Asia Minor (b. c. 40), the only cities that offered any serious opposition to him were Lao- dicea, under Zeno, and Mylasa, under Hybreas. Hybreas, moreover, exasperated the young general by a taunting message. When the city, was taken, the house and property of Hybreas were destroyed and plundered, but he himself had previously escaped to Rhodes. He was restored to his home after the expulsion of the Parthians by Ventidius. (Strab. xiii. p. 630, xiv. pp. 659, 660.) He is quoted two, or three times by Seneca ; but, with these exceptions, his works are wholly lost. (Wes- termann, Gesch. d. Griecli. Beredtsamkeit, § 86, n. 20.) [P. S.]

HYBRIAS ('T'Spins) of Crete, a lyric poet, the author of a highly esteemed scholion which is pre­ served by Athenaeus (xv. p. 695—6) and Eusta- thius (ad Odyss. p. 276, 47), and in the Greek Anthology. (Brunek, Anal. vol. i. p. 159 ; see Jacobs's notes, and Ilgen, Schol. s. Carm. Conviv. Grace, p. 102.) [P. S.]

HYDARNES('T8a>?;s), one of the seven Per­ sian noblemen who conspired against the Magi in b. c. 521. He commanded for Xerxes on the sea- coast of Asia Minor, and entertained Sperthias and Bulis when they were on their way to de­ liver themselves up to the king as a compensation for the Persian ambassadors slain at Sparta. (He­ rod, iii. 70, vi. 48, 133, vii. 133-135 ; Strab. xi. p. 531.) Herodotus mentions another Hydarnes (vii. 83, 211) as the commander of the select band of Persians called the Immortals in Xerxes' inva­ sion of Greece. It is doubtful whether the Hy­ darnes mentioned in Herod, vii. 66 is to be identified with either of the above. [E, E,]

HYDRELUS. [athymbrus.]

HYES ("Yrjs), the moist or fertilising god, oc­curs like Hyetius, as a surname of Zeus, as the

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