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course, are specified. With regard to the author of this work, or of the work of which this may be an abridgment, nothing whatsoever is known, al­ though there can be little or no doubt that he is the JuUvs Orator mentioned by Cassiodorus (Div. Led. c. 25) as a distinguished writer upon these topics, and he is one of the many personages to whom the Itinerary of Antoninus has been ascribed, as well as the Cosmography of Aethicus Hister, a compi­ lation in many points identical with the piece which we have been describing. [antoninus ; aethicus.] (See the edition of Pomponius Mela by J. Gronovius, Lug. Bat. 8vo., 1(585, and by A. Gronovius, Lug. Bat. 8vo., 1722 ; also the preface of Wesseling to his edition of the ancient Roman Itineraries, Amst. 4to., 1735.) [W. R.] HOPLADAMOS ('OirAccSa^os), one of the Gigantes who accompanied and protected Rhea when she was on the point of giving birth to Zeus. (Paus. viii. 32. § 4, 36. § 2.) [L. S.]

HORAE (T.Q/3cu), originally the personifications or goddesses of the order of nature and of the sea­sons, but in later times they were regarded as the goddesses of order in general and of justice. In Homer, who neither mentions their parents nor their number, they are the Olympian divinities of the weather and the ministers of Zeus ; and in this capacity they guard the doors of Olympus, and promote the fertility of the earth, by the various kinds of weather they send down. (Od. xxiv. 343; comp. x. 469, xix. 132, //. v. 749, viii. 393.) As the weather, generally speaking, is regulated ac­cording to the seasons, they are further described as the goddesses of the seasons, i. e. the regular phases under which Nature manifests herself. (Od. ii. 107, x. 469, xi. 294, xix. 152, xxiv. 141.) They are kind and benevolent, bringing to gods and men many things-that are good and desirable. (//. xxi. 450 ; comp. Hymn, in Apoll. Pylh. 16 ; Theocrit. xv. 105 ; Ov. Fast. i. 125.) As, however, Zeus lias the power of gathering and dispersing the clouds, they are in reality only his ministers, and sometimes also those of Hera. (//. viii. 433 ; comp. Moschus, Idyll, ii. 160 ; Paus. v. 11. § 2.) Men in different circumstances regard the course of time (or the seasons) either as rapid or as slow, and both epithets are accordingly applied to the Horae. (Theocr. xv. 104 ; Pind. Nem. iv. 34 ; Horat. Carm. iv. 7. 8 ; Ov. Met. ii. 118.) The course of the seasons (or hours) is symbolically described by the dance of the Horae ; and, in conjunction with the Charites, Hebe, Harmonia, and Aphro­dite, they accompany the songs of the Muses, and Apollo's play on the lyre, with their dancing. (Horn. Hymn, in Apoll. Pyth. 16, &c. ; Pind. Ol. iv. 2 ; Xen. Sympos. 7.) The Homeric notions continued to be entertained for a long time after­wards, the Horae being considered as the givers of the various seasons of the year, especially of spring and autumn, i. e. of Nature in her bloom and ma­turity. At Athens two Horae, Thallo (the Hora of spring) and Carpo (the Hora of autumn), were worshipped from very early times. (Paus. ix. 35. § 1 ; comp. Athen. xiv. p. 636; Ov. Met. ii. 118, &c.; Val. Flacc. iv. 92 ; Lucian, Dial. Deor. x. 1.) The Hora of spring accompanies Persephone every year on her ascent from the lower world ; and the expression of " The chamber of the Horae opens " is equivalent to " The spring is coming." (Orph. Hymn. xlii. 7 ; Pind. Fragm. xlv. 13, p. 576, ed. Boeckh.) The attributes of spring—flowers, fra-


grance, and graceful freshness—are accordingly transferred to the H orae; thus they adorned Aphro­dite as she rose from the sea, made a garland of flowers for Pandora, and even inanimate things are described as deriving peculiar charms from the Horae. (Horn. Hymn. viii. 5, &c.; Hes. Op. 65 ; Hygin. Poet. A sir. ii. 5 ; Theocr. i. 150 ; Athen. ii. p. 60.) Hence they bear a resemblance to and are mentioned along with the Charites, and both are frequently confounded or-identified. (Paus. ii. 17. § 4 ; Mliller, Orchom. p. 176, &c. 2nd edit.) As they were conceived to promote the prosperity of every thing that grows, they appear also as the protec­tresses of youth and newly-born gods (Paus. ii. 13. § 3 ; Pind. Pyth. ix. 62 ; Philostr. Imag. i. 26 j Nonnus, Dionys. xi. 50); and the Athenian youths, on being admitted among the ephebi, mentioned Thallo, among other gods, in the oath they took in the temple of Agraulos. (Pollux, viii. 106.)

In this, as in many other cases of Greek mytho­ logy, a gradual transition is visible, from purely physical to ethical notions, and the influence which the Horae originally had on nature was subse­ quently transferred to human life in particular. The first trace of it occurs even in Hesiod, for he describes them as giving to a state good laws, jus­ tice, and peace ; he calls them the daughters of Zeus and Themis, and gives them the significant names of Eunomia, Dice, and Eirene. (fheog. 901, £c.; Apollod. i. 3. § 1 ; Diod. v. 72.) But the ethical and physical ideas are not always kept apart, and both are often mixed up with each other, as in Pindar. (01. iv. 2, xiii. 6, Nem. iv. 34 ; Orph. Hymn. 42.) The number of the Horae is different in the differ­ ent writers, though the most ancient number seems to have been two, as at Athens (Paus. iii. 18. § 7, ix. 35. § 1) ; but afterwards their common number is three, like that of the Moerae and Charites. Hy- ginus (Fab. 183) is in great confusion respecting the number and names of the Horae, as he mixes up the original names with surnames, and the de­ signations of separate seasons or hours. In this manner he first makes out a list of ten Horae, viz. Titanis, Auxo, Eunomia, Pherusa, Carpo, Dice, Euporia, Eirene, Orthosia, and Thallo, and a second of eleven, Auge, Anatole, Musia, Gymnasia, Nym- phes, Mesembria, Sponde, Telete, Acme, Cypridos, Dysis. The Horae (Thallo and Carpo) were wor­ shipped at Athens, and their temple there also contained an altar of Dionysus Orthus (Athen. ii. p. 38 ; comp. xiv. p. 656 ; Hesych. s. v. Spaia); they were likewise worshipped at Argos (Paus. ii. 20. 4), Corinth, and Olympia(v. 15. § 3). In works of art the Horae were represented as blooming maidens, carrying the different products of the seasons. (Hirt. Myihol. Bilderb. ii. p. 122.) [L. S.]

HORAPOLLO ('npcwroAAwi/) was, according to Suidas (s. v.), a very distinguished Greek gram­marian of Phaenebythis in Egypt, who first taught at Alexandria, and afterwards at Constantinople, in the reign of the emperor Theodosius. He is further said to have written commentaries on So­phocles, Alcaeus, and Homer, and a separate work, entitled Tejuew/ca, i. e. on repevrj, or places sacred to the gods. (Comp, Steph. Byz. s. v. QeveSyBis.) Photius (Bibl. Cod. 279, p. 536, ed. Bekker) speaks of him as a grammarian, and the author of a work, cpl r&v Trarpiwv 'A/\e|az/5pf/a.y, though this may have been the work of another Horapollo, who was likewise an Egyptian, but lived under the emperor Zeno. Under the name of Horapollo (or, as some

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