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HIPPOCRATES.

though defeuAed by Marcellus at Acrae, effected a junction with Himilco at Agrigentum, and we find him united with that general in the subsequent operations in the interior of Sicily. [HiMiLCO, No. 9,.] Marcellus having at length made himself master of the greater part of Syracuse, while Achradina and the island of Ortygia still held out, a final attempt was made by Hippocrates and Hi­ milco, with their combined forces, to raise the siege, but their attacks on the Roman lines were t unsuccessful, and having encamped in the marshy ground on the banks of the Anapus, a pestilence broke out among their troops, to which Hippocrates, as well as Himilco, fell a victim. (Liv. xxiv. 35— 39, xxv. 26.) [E. H. B.}

HIPPOCRATES ('ImroKprfins); historical. 1. A citizen of Sybaris, father of Smindyrides, who was one of the suitors of Agariste, the daughter of Cleisthenes^yrant of Sicyon. (Herod, vi. 127.)

2. An Athenian, son of Megacles, and brother of Cleisthenes, the legislator. He left two children, a son named Megacles, and a daughter, Agariste, who became the mother of the illustrious Pericles. (Herod, vi. 131.)

3. Father of Peisistratus, the tyrant of Athens. The future elevation of his son, but at the same time the evils which he was destined to bring upon his country, were foretold to him by a prodigy which occurred to him when sacrificing at the Olympic games. Chilon, the Lacedaemonian, who was present, advised him in consequence not to marry, but he did not think fit to follow this coun­sel. He claimed to be descended from the Homeric chief, Nestor. (Herod, i. 59, v. 65.)

4. An Athenian, son of Xanthippus and brother of Pericles. He had three sons who, as well as their father, are repeatedly alluded to by Aris­tophanes, as men of a mean capacity and devoid of education. (Aristoph. Nub. 1001, Thesm. 273, and Schol. ad loca.)

5. An Athenian, son of Ariphron, was general, together with Demosthenes, in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian war (b. c. 424), when the democratic party at Megara, becoming apprehensive of the recal of the exiles, and of a revolution in consequence, made overtures to the Athenians to betray the city into their hands. Demosthenes and Hippocrates immediately marched, with a select body of troops, to take advantage of this oppor­tunity, and, with the assistance of their partisans, made, themselves masters of the long walls which connected Megara with its port of Nisaea, but were unable to effect an entrance into the city itself. Thus foiled in part of their enterprise, they turned their arms against Nisaea, in which there was a Peloponnesian garrison, but this was speedily compelled, by want of provisions, to capitulate, and the Athenians became masters of this important port. Brasidas soon after arrived with a consider­able army, and by his influence secured the predo­minance of the Lacedaemonian party at Megara ; but he was unable to effect anything against Nisaea, and after haviug in vain offered battle to the Athenian generals, he withdrew again to Corinth. (Thuc. iv..66—74 ; Diod. xii. 66, 67.) Soon after this, a scheme was arranged by Demosthenes and Hippocrates, in concert with a party in some of the Boeotian cities, for the invasion of Boeotia on three different points at once. In pursuance of this plan Demosthenes attacked .by sea the port of Siphae on the Corinthian gulf, while Hippocrates

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HIPPOCRATES.

was to seize and fortify Delium, a spot sacred to Apollo near the frontiers of Attica. Some mistake unfortunately took place in their arrangements, and Demosthenes had been already repulsed from be­fore Siphae when his colleague entered Boeotia. Hippocrates, however, occupied Delium without opposition, and having fortified it and established a garrison there, was returning with his main army to Athens, when the Boeotian forces arrived. A pitched battle ensued, at a spot between Delium and Oropus, just within the confines of Attica, in which the Athenians were completely defeated. Hippocrates himself fell in the battle, together with near a thousand of his troops ;. and the loss on the Athenian side would have been far greater had not the slaughter been interrupted by the coming on of the night. The Boeotians at first refused to give up the bodies of Hippocrates and the others who had fallen in the battle until the Athenians should evacuate Delium ; but having reduced that post, after a siege of seventeen days, they at length restored the dead bodies to their countrymen. (Thuc. iv. 76, 77, 89—101 ; Diod. xii. 69, 70: Paus. iii. 6. § 1, ix. 6. § 3.)

6. A Lacedaemonian, first mentioned as being sent with Epicles to Euboea, to bring away Hege-sandridas and his fleet from thence, after the defeat of Mindarus at Cynossema, b.c. 411. (Thuc. viii. 107.) He returned with Hegesandridas to the Hellespont, where he acted as second in command (e7r«TT0A6i5s) to Mindarus during the subsequent operations. [mindarus]. After the decisive defeat at Cyzicus (b.c. 410), Hippocrates, on whom the chief command now devolved by the death of Mindarus, wrote to Sparta the wijll-known and characteristic dispatch, " Our good fortune is at an end; Mindarus is gone; the men are hungry ; what to do we know not." (Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 23.) After the arrival of Cratesippidas to take the com­mand at the Hellespont, Hippocrates appears to have been appointed governor or harmost of Chal-cedon ; and when that city was attacked, in the spring of 408, by Alcibiades and Thrasyllus, he led out his troops to encounter the Athenians, but was defeated, and himself fell in the conflict. (Id. i. 3. § 5, 6; Diod. xiii. 66; Plut. Alcib. 30.) [E. H.B.]

HIPPOCRATES ('iTTuwpcfrnjs), literary. 1. Of Chios, a Pythagorean philosopher, who lived about b. c. 460. He is mentioned chiefly as a mathe­matician, and is said to have been the first who reduced geometry to a regular system. He seems to have been also engaged in researches respecting the square of a circle ; but we have no means of judging of his merits as a mathematician, and Aristotle (Ethic, ad Eudem. viii. 14) states that in every other respect he was a man not above me­diocrity. (Comp. Aristot. Sophist. Elench. i. 10; Plut. Solon, 2 ; Proclus in Euclid, ii. p. 19 ; Fa­bric. Bill. Graec. vol. i. p. 848, &c.)

2. One of the executors of the will of the philo­sopher Straton of Lampsacus. (Diog. Lae'rt. v. 62.) He was probably a philosopher, but is otherwise altogether unknown. .

3. Is mentioned in several modern works as a comic poet on the authority of Pollux (Onotn. ix. 57 ; comp. iv. 173) ; but it is now certain that the reading in Pollux is corrupt^ and that the name oaa'iKpdrTjs must be substituted for it. (See Mei-neke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 498, &c.) [L. S.] HIPPO'CRATES ('IiriroKpdr'ns), the name of several physicians, including in the number perhaps

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