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b. c. 122—121 it was destroyed by the praetor, L.'^wmius (Rhet. ad Herenn. iv. 9 ; Veil. ii. 6 ;
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Val. Max. ii. 8); and in the age of Augustus it was little more than an open village (Strab. /. c.; Plin. H. N.. iii. 5). But Cicero's letter (/. c.) shows that it retained its demesne-land and its full complement of local magistrates. [ W. B. D.]
HIPPOBOTUS (fI*-7r<teoTos), a writer very frequently quoted by Diogenes Laertius. He wrote a work on the different philosophic schools (Ilepl Aipeo-fwv, which is perhaps the same work as the &i\ocrd<pQ)V 'AvaypaQtt mentioned by Diog. Laert i. 42), embracing not only an exposition of their systems, but likewise biographical notices of the different philosophers. The passages where he is quoted will be found in Vossius, De Hist. Graec. p. 455, ed. Westermann.. [C. P. M.]
HIPPOCAMPE and HIPPOCAMPUS ('Iir-Troffa/wnj and 'I-mnfaajtwros), the mythical sea-horse, which, according to the description of Pausanias (ii. 1), was a horsey but the part of its body down from the breast was that of a sea monster or fish. The horse appears even in the Homeric poems as the symbol of Poseidon, whose chariot was drawn over the surface of the sea by swift horses. The later poets and artists conceived and represented the horses of Poseidon and other marine divinities as a combination of a horse and a fish. (Horn. //. xiii. 24, 29; Eurip. Androm. 1012 ; Virg. Georg. iv. 389; Philostr. Imag. i. 8 ; Stat. Theb. ii. 45; comp. Welcker in the Class. Museum, vol. ii. p. 394.)
HIPPOCLEIDES ('IwTTo/cAe/S?^), an Athenian, son of Tisander, came to the court of cleisthenes of Sicyon as one of the suitors of his daughter agarista. He was descended from the Cypselidae of Corinth (comp. Herod, vi. 35), and was distinguished for wealth and beauty of person. Cleisthenes was disposed to prefer him to the other suitors, and he would probably have won the lady, had he not disgusted Cleisthenes on the day appointed for the decision by indecent dancing and tumblers' tricks. To his host's remark, " You have danced away your marriage," he returned an answer by which he did not redeem his character as a gentleman, " Hippocleides does not care." (Herod, vi. 127—129 ; Ath. xiv. p. 628, c, d.) [E. E.]
HIPPOCLES (cl7r7ro/cA.77s), son of Menippus took post off Leucas, with 27 Athenian galleys, in the year following the Sicilian defeat, b. c. 412, to watch for the return of the squadron of Gylippus. He had but partial success. The sixteen Pelopon- nesian ships escaped with one exception, though all in a shattered state, to Corinth. (Thuc. viii. 13.) [A.H. C.]
HIPPOCLUS (vl7T7roK\os), tyrant of Lampsacus, to whose son, Aeantides, Hippias gave his daughter Archedice in marriage, induced thereto, says Thu- cydides, by consideration of his influence at the Persian court (Thuc. vi. 59.) He is clearly the same who is named as tyrant of Lampsacus in the list of those, who were left at the passage of the Danube during the Scythian expedition of Dareius. (Herod, iv. 138.) [A. H. C.] - HIPPO'COON ('iTTTroKoW), the eldest, but natural son of Oebalus and Bateia, and a step brother of Tyndareus, Icarius and Arene, at Sparta. After his father's death, Hippocoon expelled his brother Tyndareus, in order to secure the kingdom to himself; but Heracles led Tyndareus backhand
slew Hippocoon and his sons. (Pans. iii. 1 § 4, 14. § 6, &c., 15. § 2, &c.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 3, iii. 10. § 4; Diod. iv. 33.) The number_and names of Hippocoon's sons are different in the different writers: Apollodorus mentions twelve, Diodorus ten, and Pausanias only six. Ovid (Met. viii. 314) mentions the sons of Hippocoon among the Caly-donian hunters.
There are four other mythical personages of the name of Hippocoon. (Hygin. Fab. 10, 173; Horn* //. x. 518 ; Virg. Aen. v. 492, &c.) [L. S.]
HIPPOCRATES ('itttto/c^ttjs), (Sicilians).
1. Tyrant of Gela, was the son of Pantares, and succeeded his brother Cleander, who had ruled over Gela as tyrant during seven years, B. c. 498, Hence he found his power already firmly established at Gela, and soon extended it by numerous wara against the other cities of Sicily, in which he was almost uniformly successful. Callipolis, Naxos, and Leontini, besides several smaller places, successively fell under his yoke. Being called in by the people of Zancle to assist them against the Samians, who had made themselves masters of their city by treachery, he suddenly turned against his allies, threw their king Scythes into chains, and reduced the mass of the people into slavery, while he gave up three hundred of the principal citizens to the mercy of the Samians, whom he allowed to retain possession of Zancle, in consideration of receiving half the booty they had found there. He also made war upon the Syracusans, whom he defeated in a great battle at the river Helorus, and appears even to have threatened Syracuse itself, as we hear of his encamping by the well-known temple of the Olympian Zeus, in the immediate neighbourhood of that city. But the intervention of the Corinthian* and Corcyreans induced him to consent to the conclusion of a treaty of peace, by which the Syracusans, in exchange for the numerous prisoners he had taken at the Helorus, ceded to him the territory of Camarina, and he immediately proceeded to rebuild that city, which had been lately destroyed by the Syracusans. His last expedition was one against the Sicels, in the midst of which he died, while engaged in the siege of Hybla (b.c. 491), after a reign of seven years. He left two sons, Cleander and Eucleides, who, however, did not succeed him in the sovereignty, being supplanted by Gelon. (Herod, vi. 23, vii. 154, 155; Thuc. vi. 5 ; Diod. Etxc. Vales, p. 558 ; Schol. in Find. Ol. v* 19, Nem. ix. 95 ; Polyaen. v. 6.)
2. A cousin of Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, who, together with his brother Capys, attempted to overthrow the power of their kinsman; but the scheme proved unsuccessful, and they were defeated, by Theron at the river Himera, after which they established themselves at the small town of Ca-^ micus. (Schol.-in Find. Ol. ii. 173, Pyth. vi. 4.)
3. Brother of Epicydes [epicydes, No. 1.], The proceedings of the two brothers are related under the article epicydes, up to the time when they held the joint command at Syracuse, and defended that city against Marcellus. When the Roman general, having failed in all his attacks upon the city, found himself compelled to turn the siege into a blockade, it was agreed that while Epicydes continued to hold the command within the walls^ Hippocrates should co-operate in other parts of Sicily with Himilco, who had just landed at Hera-clea with a large force. He accordingly succeeded in breaking his way through the Roman lines, and,