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HILARIUS.

2. Commentarius (s. Tractatus) in Evangelium Matthaei, written before his exile, in A. d. 356, and divided into twenty-three canones or sections. The preface, which is quoted by Cassianus (De Incarn. vii. 24), is wanting. This is the most ancient of the extant expositions of the first evan­gelist by any of the Latin fathers, and is repeat­edly quoted by Jerome and Aiigustin. From the resemblance which it bears in tone and spirit to the exegetical writings of Origen, it may very pro­bably have been derived from some of his works.

3. De Synodis s. De Fide Orientalium s. De Synodis Graeciae^ or more fully, De Synodis Fidei Catliolicae contra Arianos et praevaricatores^Arianis acquiescentes, or simply, Epistola, being in reality a letter, written in a. d. 358, while in exile, ad­dressed to his episcopal brethren in Gaul, Germany, Holland, and Britain, explaining the real views of the Oriental prelates on the Trinitarian controversy, and pointing out that many of them, although differing in words, agreed in substance with the orthodox churches of the West. In the Benedictine edition, we find added for the first time a defence of this piece, in reply to objections which had been urged against it by a certain Lucifer, probably him of Cagliari.

4. De Trinitate Libri XII. s. Contra, Arianos s. De Fide, besides a number of other titles, differ­ing slightly from each other. This, the most im­portant and elaborate of the productions of Hilarius, was composed, or at least finished, in a. d. 360. It contains a 'complete exposition of the doctrine of Trinity, a comprehensive examination of the evi­dences upon which it rests, and a full refutation of all the grand arguments of the heretics, being the first great controversial work produced upon this subject ;in the Latin church. Jerome informs us that it was divided into twelve books, in order that the number might correspond with the twelve books of Quintilian, whose style the author pro­posed as his model. When Cassiodorus (Institt. Div. 16) speaks of thirteen books, he includes the tract De Synodis, mentioned above. • 5. Ad Constantium Augustum Liber secundus, presented in person to the emperor about a. d. 360, in which the petitioner sets forth that he had been driven into banishment by the -calumnies of his enemies, implores the sovereign to lend a favourable ear to his cause, and takes occasion to vindicate the truth of the principles which he maintained.

6. Contra Constantium Augustum Liber. Pro­bably composed, and perhaps privately circulated, while the prince was still alive, but certainly not published until after his death,—a supposition by which we shall be able to reconcile the words of the piece itself (c. 2) with the positive assertion of Jerome (de Viris El. 100). Indeed, it is scarcely credible that any zealot, however bold, would have ventured openly to assail any absolute monarch, however mild, with such a mass of coarse abuse, differing, moreover, so remarkably from the subdued tone of his former addresses to the same personage, who is here pronounced to be Antichrist, a rebel against God, a tyrant whose sole object was to make a gift to the Devil of that world for which Christ had suffered. We are particularly struck with two points in this attack. Unmeasured abuse is poured forth against Constantius because he refrained from inflicting tortures and martyrdom upon his adversaries, seeking rather to win them

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over by the temptations of wealth and honours, and because he wished to confine the creed strictly to the words of Scripture, excluding apostolical tra­dition and the authority of the hierarchy. The extravagant violence of the first requires no com­ment ; the second is remarkable, since it proves that some of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church, as opposed to the Protestant, had already been called in question. (See Milman's History ofCIiristianity, book iii. c. 5.)

7. Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanen-sem Liber unus ; otherwise, Epistola ad Catholicos et Auxentium, written in A. d. 365, to which is subjoined a letter addressed by Auxentius to the emperors Valentinianus and Valens. The subject of these will be sufficiently understood from the circumstances recorded in the life of Hilarius.

8. Cominentarii (s. Tractates* s. Esepositiones) in Psalmos, composed towards the very close of his life. Not so much verbal annotations as general reflections upon the force and spirit of the different psalms, and upon the lessons which we ought to draw from them, mingled with many mystical and allegorical speculations, after the fashion of Origen. It is not improbable that these were originally short discourses or homilies, delivered from the pulpit, and afterwards digested and arranged. They may have extended to the whole book of Psalms, but the collection, as it now exists, embraces seventy-nine only.

9. Fragmenta Hilarii, first published in 1598 by Nicolaus Faber from the library of P. Pithou, containing passages from a lost work upon -the synods of Seleuceia and Ariminum, and from other pieces connected with the history of the divisions by which the church was at that time distracted.

The following are of doubtful authenticity:—

1. Epistola ad Abram Filiam suam, dissuading her from becoming the bride of any one save Christ. 2. Hymnus Matutinus, addressed also to his daughter Abra.

Works now lost, but mentioned by Jerome, Augustin, or other ancient authorities:—1. Libellus ad Sallustium Galliarum Praefectum contra Dios-curum medicum. Probably an apology for Chris­tianity. 2. Commentarius (s. Tractatus) in Jobum, freely translated from the Greek of Origen. 3. Liber adversus Valentem et Ursatium, portions of which are to be found in the Fragmenta noticed above. 4. Hymnorum Liber. 5. Mysteriorum Liber. 6. Many Epistolae. 7. He was said to have been the author of a Commentarius in Cantica Canticorum, but Jerome was unable to discover it, and equally dubious is the Eocpositio Epistolae ad Timotheum, quoted in the Acts of the Council of Seville.

The Carmen in Genesim ; Libri de Patris et Filii Unitate ; Liber de Essentia Patris et Filii; Confessio de Trinitate; Epistola, s. Libellus et Sermo de Dedications Ecclesiae, are all erroneously ascribed to this father.

Hilarius was gifted with a powerful intellect, and displayed undaunted courage and perseverance in upholding the faith ; but his zeal bordered so closely upon fanaticism, that he must frequently have injured the cause which he advocated with unseemly violence. He can scarcely be esteemed a man of learning, for he was ignorant of Hebrew, and but imperfectly acquainted with Greek: his expositions of Scripture, when original, are by no means profound, when borrowed are not selected

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