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form in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. p. 235.

With regard to the title of another work sup­ posed to have been written by the same author, see Mansius, ad Fabr. Bibl. M. et Inf. Lat. vol. iii. p." 251. [W. R.]

HILARIUS, a native of Bithynia, who in the reign of Valens (a. d. 364—379) migrated to Athens, and distinguished himself as a painter, as well as by his general proficiency in art and phi­ losophy. While residing near Corinth in a. d. 379, Hilarius, with his whole family, perished in an invasion of the Goths. (Eunap. Vit. Soph. p. 67, ed. Boissonade ; comp. id. Excerpt. Legal, p. 20.) [W.B.D.]

HILARIUS (eIAa>os), a Phrygian, an inter­preter of oracles, implicated in the proceedings of Theodorus, who attempted to discover by magic who should succeed the emperor Valens. He was executed in the course of the judicial proceedings which followed. (Amm. Marc. xxix. 1; Zosim. iv. 15 ; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. v.) [J. C. M.]

HILARIUS. Among the correspondence of Augustin we find two letters addressed to that prelate by a certain Hilarius, of whom we know nothing certain except that he was a layman, an intimate friend of Prosper Aquitanus, an ardent admirer of the bishop of Hippo, and probably the person to whom the latter addressed his treatise, De Praedestinatione Sanctorum et de Dono Perse- verantiae. The first of these letters, which is short, is entitled De Pelagianis, was written at Syracuse in a. d. 413 or 414, and is numbered clvi. in the collected epistles of Augustin, according to the Benedictine arrangement. The second letter is considerably longer, is entitled De Semipelagianis, was despatched from the south of France, along •with one by Prosper upon the same subject, in 428 or 429, and is numbered ccxxvi. It was pub­ lished at Cologne in 1503, along with the treatise of Honorius Augustodunensis, De libero Arbitrio, and is included in the Paris edition (1711) of the works of Prosper, p. 7. A third letter was written by this same personage upon the same topics, which is now lost; and some critics have, upon no suffi­ cient grounds, ascribed to him a work, De Vcca- iione Gentium* [W. R.]

HILARIUS, surnamed arelatensis, was born at the commencement of the fifth century, in Gallia Belgica, of a noble family, and distinguished himself in boyhood by the zeal and success with which he followed out the various branches of a liberal education. At an early age he became the disciple of Honoratus, first abbot of Lerins, by whom he was persuaded- to abandon the world, and to devote himself to a monastic life. To this he attached himself so warmly, that when the bishopric of Aries became vacant in a. d. 429, by the death of his preceptor, he was with the utmost difficulty induced to yield to the wishes of the ele,rgy and people, and to accept the episcopal chair. The circumstance that a monk of twenty-hine should have been chosen unanimously to fill such an important station is in itself a strong proof of the reputation which he must have enjoyed as a man of learning, eloquence, and piety. His name, however, has acquired importance in ecclesiastical history chiefly from the controversy in which he became involved with Pope Leo the Great. A certain Chelidonius, bishop either of Vesoul or Besangon, .had been deposed, in consequence of


certain irregularities, by a council at which Hila­rius presided, assisted by Eucherius of Lyons and Germanus of Auxerre. Chelidonius repaired to Rome for the purpose of lodging an appeal against this sentence, and thither he was followed by Hilarius, who expressed a wish to confer with the pontiff, but refused to acknowledge his jurisdiction in the case. Leo, incensed by what he considered as a direct attack upon his supremacy, forthwith reinstated Chelidonius, while Hilarius, entertaining apprehensions for his own personal freedom, was fain to quit the city by stealth, and make his way back to his diocese, on foot, crossing the Alps at the most inclement season of the year. He sub­sequently endeavoured, but in vain, to negotiate a reconciliation with Leo, who refused to listen to any terms short of absolute submission, and even­tually succeeded in depriving him of all the privi­leges which he enjoyed as metropolitan of Gaul. This proceeding was confirmed by the celebrated rescript of Valentinian III., issued in 445, in which, among other matters, it was ordained, " Ut Episcopis Gallicanis omnibusque pro lege esset, quidquid apostolicae sedis auctoritas sanxisset: ita ut quisquis Episcoporum ad judicium Romani antistitis evocatus venire neglexisset per modera-torem ejusdem provinciae adesse cogeretur," a de­cree which, while it unequivocally established the authority of the bishop of Rome over the church beyond the Alps, at the same time, when taken in connection with the circumstances by which it was called forth, seems to prove that up to this period such authority had never been fully and formally recognised. The merits of this dispute have, as might be expected, become a party question among ecclesiastical historians, who characterise the con­duct of the chief personages concerned in the most opposite terms, according to the views which they entertain with regard to the rights of the papal chair. Hilarius died in 449, about five years after the deposition of Chelidonius.

The only works of this Hilarius now extant whose authenticity is unquestionable are—

1. Vita Sancti Honorati Arelatensis Episcopi^ a sort of funeral panegyric upon his predecessor, which has been much admired, on account of the graceful and winning character of the style. It was first published at Paris by Genebrardus, in 1578, and a few years afterwards, from MSS. pre­served at Lerins, by Vincentius Barralis, in his Chrohologia sanct. insul. Lerin. Lugd. 4to. 1613 ; the text of the former edition was followed by Surius ad xvi. Jan., and of the latter by the Bollandists, vol. ii. p. 11. It is also given in the Bibl. Pair. Max. Lugd. 1677, vol. viii. p. 1228, in the Opera Leonis /., edited by Quesnell, Paris, 4to. 1675, and in the Opera Vincentii Lirinensis et HUarii Arelatensis, by J. Salinas, Rom. 8vo. 1731.

2. Epistola ad Eucherium Episcopum Lugdw-nensem^ first published in the Chronotogia Lirinensis of Barralis, and subsequently in the Bibl. Max. Pair. Lugd. vol. viii., in Quesnell and in Salinas* See above.

The author of his life, which we notice below, mentions also Homiliae in totius anni Festivitates ; Symboli Eocpositio; a great number of Epistolae\ and likewise Versus* but all of these are lost, unless we agree with those who upon very slender evidence assign to this Hilarius three poems in dactylic hexameters, of which two are ascribed in

HH 3

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