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HIERON.

the Roman power, and seeing little hope of assist­ance from Carthage, concluded a peace with Rome. The terms of the treaty were on the whole suf­ficiently favourable ; Hieron retained possession of the whole south-east of Sicily, and the eastern side of the island as far as Tauromenium, advantages which were cheaply purchased by the surrender of his prisoners and the payment of a large sum of money. (Polyb. i. 11, 12, 15, 16; Diod. Ease. Hoesch. xxiii. 2, 4, 5 ; Zonar. viii. 9 ; Oros. iv. 7.)

From this time till his death, a period of little less than half a century, Hieron continued the stedfast friend and ally of the Romans, a policy of which his subjects as well as himself reaped the benefits, in the enjoyment of a state of tranquillity and prosperity such as they had never before known for so long a period. But such an interval of peace and quiet naturally affords few materials for history, and our knowledge of the remainder of Hieron's long life is almost confined to the inter­change of good offices between him and the Romans, which cemented and confirmed their friendship. During the first Punic war he was frequently called upon to render important services to his new allies ; in b.c. 262, by the zeal and energy which he displayed in furnishing supplies to the Roman consuls before Agrigentum, he en­abled them to continue the siege, and ultimately effect the reduction of that important fortress, (Polyb. i. 18; Zonar. viii. 10.) On a subsequent occasion we find him sending them the military engines and artillery, by means of which they took Camarina (Diod. Exc. Hoesch. xxiii. 9), and in 255 displaying the utmost solicitude in relieving the wants of the Roman mariners and soldiers after the dreadful shipwreck of their fleet off Camarina. (Id. ibid. 13.) Again in 252 he is mentioned as furnishing the consul Aurelius Cotta with ships (Zonar. viii. 14), and as relieving the spirits of the Roman army by an opportune supply of corn, when almost disheartened, during the long protracted siege of Lilybaeum, B. c. 249. (Diod. Exc. Hoesch. xxiv. 1.) For these faithful services he was re­warded by being included under the protection of the treaty of peace concluded between Rome and Carthage in b.c. 241 (Polyb. i. 62. § 8), and by a renewal of the treaty between him and the Romans, which was now changed into a perpetual alliance, the payment of all tribute being henceforth remitted. (Zonar. viii. 16 ; Appian, Sic. 2.)

During the interval of peace between the two Punic wars, Hieron visited Rome in person, where he appears to have been received with the highest honours, and gave a proof at once of his wealth and liberality, by distributing a vast quantity of corn to the people at the secular games. (Eutrop. iii. 1.) In B. c. 222, after the great victory of Marcellus over the Gauls, a portion of the spoils taken on that occasion was sent to him by the senate as a friendly offering. (Plut. Marc. 8 ; Liv. xxiv. 21.) The beginning of the second Punic war now came, to put his fidelity to the highest test; but he was not found wanting to his allies in the hour of their danger. He not only fitted out a fleet to co-operate with that of the consul Sem-pronius (of which, notwithstanding his advanced age, he appears to have taken the command in person)* but offered to supply the Roman legions and naval forces in Sicily with provisions and clothing at his own expense. The next year (217)> on receiving the tidings of the fatal battle of Thra-

H1ERON.

symene, he hastened to send to Rome a large sup­ply of corn, as well as a body of light-armed auxiliaries, and a golden statue of Victory, which was consecrated by the Romans in the capitol. (Liv. xxi. 49—51, xxii. 37 ; Zonar. viii. 26 ; Val. Max. iv. 8.) The still heavier disaster of Cannae in the following year (b.c. 216) appears to have produced as little change in his disposition towards the contending powers ; and one of the last acts of his life was the sending a large supply of money and corn to the propraetor T. Otacilius. (Liv. xxiii. 21.) The date of his death is nowhere ex­pressly mentioned, but it seems clear that it must have occurred before the end of the year 216. (See Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 267.) According to Lucian (Macrob. 10), he had attained the age of ninety-two: both Polybius and Livy speak of him as not less than ninety. (Polyb. vii. 8 ; Liv. xxiv. 4.) Pausanias, who asserts that he was murdered by Deinomenes (vi. 12. § 4), has evidently con­founded him with his grandson Hieronymus.

It was not towards the Romans alone that Hieron displayed his wealth and munificence in so liberal a manner. His eyes were ever turned towards Greece itself, and he sought to attract the attention and conciliate the favour of the Greek nation not only by costly offerings at Olympia and other places of national resort, but by coming forward readily to the assistance of all who needed it. A striking instance of this is recorded in the magnificent presents which he sent to the Rhodians when their city had suffered from an earthquake. (Polyb. v. 88, vii. 8 ; Paus. vi. 12. § 2, 15. § 6.) Nor did his steady attachment to the Romans pre­vent him from furnishing supplies to the Cartha­ginians when the very existence of their state was endangered by the war of the mercenaries. (Polyb. i. 83.) His internal administration appears to have been singularly mild and equitable : though he did not refuse the title of king, he avoided all external display of the insignia of royalty, and appeared in public unattended by guards, and in the garb of a private citizen. By retaining the senate of the republic, and taking care to consult them upon all important occasions, he preserved the forms of a constitutional government; and we are even told that he was sincerely desirous to lay aside the sovereign power, and was only prevented from doing so by the unanimous voice of his subjects. (Polyb. vii. 8 ; Liv. xxiv. 4, 5, 22). The care he bestowed upon the financial department of his ad­ministration is sufficiently attested by the laws regulating the tithes of corn and other agricultural produce, which, under the name of Leges Hieron-icae, are repeatedly referred to by Cicero in his orations against Verres; and which, in consequence of their equitable and precise adjustment, were re­tained by the Romans when they reduced Sicily to a province. (Cic. Verr. ii. 13, iii. 8, 51, &c.) At the same time he adorned the city of Syracuse with many public works of great magnificence as well as of real utility, among which are men­tioned temples, gymnasia, porticoes, and public altars (Athenae. v. 40 ; Diod. xvi. 83) ; that his care in this respect was not confined to Syracuse alone is proved by the occurrence of his name on the remarkable edifices which have been brought to light of late years at Acrae, now Palazzolo. (See the Duca di Serra di Falco, Antiohita delta Sicilia, vol. iv. p. 158.) Among other modes in which he displayed his magnificence was the construction of a

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