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kingdom of heaven of such as die before they have become moral agents, inasmuch as they can have done nothing to obtain admission, " quia non sunt illis," as Augustin expresses it, " ulla merita certa-minis quo vitia superantur." He held that the Son was truly begotten of the Father, and that the Holy Ghost was from the Father; but added that Melchizedek was the Holy Ghost. Hierax became the founder of a sect called the Hieracitae ('lepcuci-tcw), into which, consistently enough, none but unmarried persons (conjugia non habentes) were admitted. Those who were regarded as his most thorough disciples abstained from animal food. The author of the work Karci iraaooif rc$v alpeffetav, Contra omnes Haereses, usually printed among the works of Athanasius, says (c. 9) that they rejected the Old Testament; but this must be understood to mean that they rejected it as a perfect rule of life, deeming it abrogated by the higher moral standard of Christianity. John of Damascus says they used the Old as well as the New Testament. John of Carpathus charges them with denying the human nature of Christ, and with holding that God, matter, and evil, are three original principles. But Epiphanius does not enumerate these among their errors.

The works of Hierax were numerous ; he wrote both in the Greek and Egyptian (i. e. Coptic) lan­guages : besides his Expositions of the Scriptures, or more probably as a part of them, he wrote on the Hexaemeron, introducing, says Epiphanius, many fables and allegories. He wrote also many psalms or sacred songs, tya\fjiotis re iroAAota vewrepiicotis. His works are now known only by the few brief citations of Epiphanius.

Lardner has shown the impropriety of classing Hierax and his followers with the Manichaeans, from whom the earlier writers expressly distinguish them; but with whom Photius and Peter of Sicily, and, among moderns, Fabricius and Beausobre con­found them. Some have attempted, but without just ground, to distinguish between Hierax, the reputed Manichaean, and Hieracas, founder of the Hieracites. (Epiphan. Panarium Haeres. 67; Augustin, De Haeres. c. 47 ; Anonymi Praedes-tinatus, lib. i. c. 4, apud Galland. Bill. Patr. vol. x. p. 370; Athanas. Opera, vol. ii. p. 235, ed. Benedictin; Joan. Damasc. De Haeres. c. 67; Opera, vol. i. p. 91, ed. Lequien ; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 161, ed. Oxford, 1740—1743; Beausobre, Hist, du Manicheisme, liv. ii. ch. 7. § 2, vol. i. p. 430, &c.; Fabric. Bill. Gr. vol. vii. p. 321, vol. ix. p. 246 ; Lardner, Credibility, part ii. bk. i. c. 63. § 7; Tillemont,Mem. vol. iv. p. 411, &c.) [J. C. M.]

HIERAMENES ('lepaju^s), is named with Tissaphernes and the sons of Pharnaces, as contract­ing parties to the third treaty between Sparta and Persia, and must therefore have been at that time (b. c. 412) an important person in Asia Minor. (Thuc. viii. 58.) He is probably the same who is said to have married a sister of Dareius, and whose sons, Autoboesaces and Mitracus, were killed by Cyrus the Younger, for having failed to show to him a mark of respect usually paid to the king only. The complaint of the parents to Dareius was in part the reason of the recall of Cyrus, b.c. 406. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. § 9.) [A. H. C.]

HIERIUS ('lepios). I. A rhetorician of Athens, who is mentioned by St. Augustin (Con­fess, iv. 14), and Suidas (s. v. Tlafinrpeirtos), but is otherwise unknown.


2. A son of Plutarch of Athens, and a disciple of Proclus, the New Platonist. (Comp. plu- tarchus of Athens.) [L. S.]

HIEROCLES ('Icpo/cArfa), historical. 1. The fa­ther of Hieron II., king of Syracuse. [hieron II,]

2. A Carian leader of mercenaries, which formed part of the garrison in the forts of Athens, under Demetrius Poliorcetes. He discovered to his com­manding officer, Heracleides, some overtures which had been made to him by the Athenians to induce him to betray into their hands the fortress of the Museum, and thus caused the complete destruction of the Athenian force that attempted to surprise it. (Polyaen. v. 17, § 1.) He is probably the same whom we find at a subsequent period (as early as b. c. 278), holding the command of the Peiraeeus and Munychia for Antigonus Gonatas. His rela­tions with the philosopher Arcesilaus appear to indicate that he was a man of cultivated mind. (Diog. Laert. ii. 127, iv. 39; Droysen, Hellenism. vol. ii. pp. 84, 206.)

3. A native of Agrigentum, who, after the de­feat of Antiochus III. at Thermopylae (b. c. 191), surrendered the island of Zacynthus, with the command of which he had been entrusted by Amynander, to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxxvi. 32.)

4. A Carian slave, afterwards a charioteer, in, which capacity he attracted the attention of the emperor Elagabalus : he quickly rose to a high place in the favour of that prince, and became one of the chief ministers of his infamous debaucheries, by which means he obtained so firm a hold over him, that he continued to the last to be the chief dispenser of the favours and patronage of the em­ peror. He was put to death by the soldiery in a sedition, shortly before the death of Elagabalus himself, a. d. 222. (Dion Cass. Ixxix. 15,19; Lamprid. Elagab. 6, 15.) [E. H. B.]

HIEROCLES (el6po/c\7fr), literary. 1. A Greek rhetorician of Alabanda in Caria, who, like his brother Menecles, was distinguished by that kind of oratory which was designated by the name of the Asiatic, in contrast with Attic oratory. His brother was the teacher of the famous Molo of Rhodes, the teacher of Cicero, so that Hierocles must have lived about b.c. 100. We do not hear that he wrote any rhetorical works, but his orations appear to have been extant in the time of Cicero. (Brut. 95, Orat. 69, de Orat. ii. 23; Strab. xiv. p. 661.)

2. The author of a work entitled &i\lffropes, or the friends of history, which is referred to several times, and seems to have chiefly contained marvellous stories about men and animals. (Steph. Byz. s. vv. "Bpaxftaves, TapKvvia ; Tzetz. ChiL vii. 146, 716, &c.) The time at which he lived is uncertain, though he belongs, in all probability, to a later date than Hierocles of Alabanda.

3. Of Hyllarima in Caria, is mentioned by Stephanus Byzantius (s. v. 'TAAcSpi/m), and from an athlete turned philosopher. Whether he is the same as the Stoic who is spoken of by Gellms (ix. 5), cannot be decided. Vossius (de Hist. Grace. p. 453, &c., ed. Westermann) conjectures that he is the same as Hierocles the author of a work entitled Oeconomicus, from which some extracts are preserved in Stobaeus (Flor. Ixxxiv. 20, 23, Ixxxv. 21, Ixxix. 53, xxxix. 34—36, Ixvii. 21—24), and that he also was the author of a work on justice (Stob. viii. 19), though the name is there perhaps a mistake for Hierax. (Comp. v. 60, ix. 56—59, x. 77, 78, xciii. 39.) There is also a Hierocles, of whom

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