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ensued, he succeeded in establishing himself (at what precise time we know not) in the possession of Leontini, which became, after the return of the younger Dionysius, a rallying point for all the disaffected Syracusans. But while Hicetas was secretly aiming at the expulsion of Dionysius, for the purpose of establishing himself in his place, the fears of a Carthaginian invasion, and the desire to restore tranquillity to the island, led the Sicilians (the Syracusan exiles among the rest) to send an embassy imploring assistance from Corinth. Hicetas ostensibly joined in the request; but as this was entirely opposed to his schemes, he at the same time entered into secret negotiations with the Carthaginians. Meanwhile, he had assembled a considerable force, with which he attacked Syracuse ; and having defeated Dionysius in a decisive action, made himself master of the whole city, except the island citadel, in which he kept the tyrant closely besieged. (Plut. TvmoL 1, 2, 7, 9, 11; Diod. xvi. 65, 67, 68.) This was the state of things when Timoleon, having eluded the vigilance of the Carthaginians, landed in Sicily (b. c. 344). Hicetas, learning ,that that general was advancing to occupy Adranum, hastened thither to anticipate him, but was defeated with heavy loss ; and shortly afterwards Dionysius surrendered the citadel into the hands of the Corinthian leader. Hicetas, finding that he had now to cope with a new enemy, and having failed in an attempt to rid himself of Timoleon by assassination, determined to have recourse openly to the assistance of Carthage, and introduced Mago, at the head of a numerous fleet and army, into the port and city itself of Syracuse. Their joint operations were, however, unsuccessful; while they were engaged in an attempt upon Ca-tana, Neon, the commander of the Corinthian garrison, recovered Achradina; and shortly afterwards Mago, alarmed at the disaffection among his mercenaries, and apprehensive of treachery, suddenly withdrew, with all his forces, and returned to Carthage. (Plut. Timol. 12, 13, 16—20; Diod. xvi. 68—70, who, however, erroneously places the departure of Mago before the surrender of Dionysius.) Hicetas was now unable to prevent Timb-leon from making himself wholly master of Syracuse; and the latter, as soon as he had settled affairs there, turned his arms against Leontini; and would probably have succeeded in expelling Hicetas from thence also, had not the Carthaginian invasion for a time required all his attention. But after his great victory at the Crimissus (b. c. 339), he soon resumed his project of freeing Sicily altogether from the tyrants. Hicetas had concluded a league with Mamercus, ruler of Catana, and they were supported by a body of Carthaginian auxiliaries sent them by Gisco; but though they at first gained some partial successes, Hicetas was totally defeated by Timoleon at the river Damurias, and soon after fell into the hands of the enemy, by whom he was put to death, together with his son Eupolemus. His wife and daughters were carried to Syracuse, where they were barbarously executed, by order of the people, in vengeance for the fate of Arete and Aristomache. (Plut. Timol. 21, 24, 30—33; Diod. xvi. 72, 73, 81, 82.)
2. Tyrant of Syracuse, during the interval between the reign of Agathocles and that of Pyrrhus. After the death of Agathocles (b. c. 289), his supposed assassin, Maenon, put to death Archagathus, j the grandson of the tyrant; and assuming the com- |
mand of the army with which the latter was besieging Aetna, directed his arms against Syracuse. Hereupon Hicetas was sent against him by the Syracusans, with a considerable army: but after the war had continued for some time, without any decisive result, Maenon, by calling in the aid of the Carthaginians, obtained the superiority, and the Syracusans were compelled to conclude an ignominious peace. Soon after ensued the revolution which led to the expulsion of the Campanian mercenaries, afterwards known as the Mamertines: and it must have been shortly after this that Hicetas established himself in the supreme power, as we are told by Diodorus that he ruled nine years. The only events of his government that are recorded are a war with Phintias, tyrant of Agri-gentum, in which he obtained a considerable victory, and one with the Carthaginians, by whom he was defeated at the river Terias. He was at length expelled from Syracuse by Thynion, an event which took place not long before the arrival of Pyrrhus in Sicily, and must therefore be referred either to 279 or 278 b. c., either of which dates is consistent enough with the period of nine years allotted to his reign by Diodorus. (Diod. Exc. Hoescli* xxi. 12, 13, xxii. 2, 6.)
There are extant gold coins struck at Syracuse bearing the name of Hicetas: from the inscription on these EIII IKETA, it is clear that he never assumed the title of king, like his contemporary Phintias, at Agrigentum. [E. H..-JB.]
COIN OF HICETAS.
HICETAS ('iKeras), one of the earlier Pythagoreans, and a native of Syracuse. Cicero, on the authority of Theophrastus (Acad. Quaest. ii. 39), tells us that he conceived the heavenly bodies to be stationary, while the earth was the only moving body in the universe, revolving round an axis with great swiftness. Diogenes Laertius also (viii. 85) says that some ascribed this doctrine to him, while others attributed it to Philolaus. (Fabric. Bill. Grace, vol. i. p. 847.) [C. P. M.]
HIEMPSAL ('Idptyas, Plut. ; 'id^apos, Diod.; eftfydXas, Appian). The name is probably a corruption of Hicemsbal. (Gesenius,i^. Phoen. Mon. p. 198.) 1. A son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, and grandson of Masinissa. Micipsa, on his deathbed, left his two sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal, together with his nephew, Jugurtha, joint heirs of his kingdom. But the unprincipled ambition of Jugurtha, and the jealousy of him long entertained by the other two, rendered it certain that this arrangement could not be of long duration ; and at the very first meeting of the three princes their animosity displayed itself in the most flagrant manner. Hiempsal especially, as the younger of the two brothers, and of the most impetuous character, allowed his feelings to break forth, and gave mortal offence to Jugurtha. After this interview, it being agreed to divide the kingdom of Numidia, as well as the treasures of the late king, between the three princes, they took up their