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449

HESYCHIUS.

work to which it is prefixed, nor does it contain any thing to justify the opinion of Valckenaer. The investigations of Alberti and Welcker (in the Rhein. Miis. ii. pp. 269, &c., 411, &c.) have ren­dered it highly probable that Hesychius was a pagan, who lived towards the end of the fourth century of our era, or, as Welcker thinks, previous to a. d. 389. This view seems to be contradicted by the fact that the work also contains a number of Christian glosses and references to ecclesiastical writers, as Epiphanius and others, whence Fabricius and other critics consider Hesychius as a Christian, and identify him with the Hesychius who in the third century after Christ made a Greek translation of the Old Testament, and is often quoted by Hie-ronymus and others. But it is now a generally established belief that the Christian glosses and the references to Christian writers are to be con­sidered as interpolations introduced into the work by a later hand. We may therefore acquiesce in the statement of the prefatory letter, that the work is based on a similar one by Diogenianus, and that Hesychius made further use of other special diction­aries, especially such as treated of Homeric Ae£«s. There can be little doubt that the lexicon in its present form is greatly disfigured and interpolated, even setting aside the introduction of the Christian Ae£ezy, or gtossae sacrae, as they are commonly called; but notwithstanding all this, the work is of incalculable value to us. It is now one of the most important sources of our knowledge, not only of the Greek language as such, but, to some extent, of Greek literature also; and in regard to anti­quarian knowledge, it is a real storehouse of in­formation, derived from earlier grammarians and commentators, whose works are lost and unknown. It further contains a large number of peculiar dia­lectical and local forms and expressions, and many quotations from other writers. The author, it is true, was more concerned about the accumulation of matter derived from the most heterogeneous sources than about a skilful and systematic arrangement ; but some of these defects are, perhaps, not to be put to the account of the original compiler, but to that of the later interpolators. This condition of the work has led some critics to the opinion, that the groundwork of the lexicon was one made by Pamphilus of Alexandria in the first century after Christ; that in the second century Diogenianus made an abridgment of it, and that at length it fell into the hands of the unknown Hesychius, by whom it was greatly interpolated, and from whom it received its present form. The interpolations must be admitted, but the rest is only an un­founded hypothesis. To restore a correct text under these circumstances is a task of the utmost diffi­culty. The first edition is that of Venice, 1514, fol., edited by the learned Greek Musurus, who made many arbitrary alterations and additions, as is clear from the Venetian MS. (the only one that is as yet known ; comp. Villoison, Anecdot. Grace. ii. p. 254 ; N. Schow, Epistolae Criticae, Rome, 1790, 4to., reprinted as a supplement in Alberti's edition.) The edition of Musurus was followed by those of Florence (1520, fol.), Hagenau (1521), and that of C. ScKrevelius (Lugdun. Bat. et Am-stelod., 1686, 4to.) The best critical edition, with a comprehensive commentary, is that of J. Alberti, which was completed after Alberti's death by Ruhn-ken, Lugd. Bat. 1746—1766, 2 vols. fol. A sup­plement to this edition was published by N. Schow

VOL. II.

HICETAS.

(Lugd. Bat. 1792, 8vo.). The glossae sacrae were edited separately, with emendations and notes, by Ernesti, Leipzig, 1785. (Comp. Alberti's preface to vol. i., and Ruhnken's to vol. ii. ; C. F. Ranke, De Leonid Hesychiani vera Origine et genuina Forma Commentatio, Leipz. et Quedlinburg, 1831, 8vo. ; Welcker, 1. c.) [L. S.]

HETAEREIUS ('EreupeTos), the protector of companies or associations of friends, a surname of Zeus, to whom Jason was believed to have offered the first sacrifices, when the Argonauts were as­ sembled for their expedition. (Athen. xiii. p. 572.) [L.S.]

HEURIPPE (Eupfo-Tra), the finder of horses, a surname of Artemis, under which Odysseus was said to have built her a temple at Pheneus in common with Poseidon Hippius, when at length he there found his lost horses. (Paus. viii. 14. §4.) [L.S.]

HIARBAS ('Iap§as), a king of the Numidians, who supported Domitius Ahenobarbus and the re­ mains of the Marian party in Africa. It seems probable that he was established on the throne by Domitius, in the place of Hiempsal, who had given offence to Marius. On the arrival of Pompey in Africa (b. c. 81), Pliarbas supported Domitius with a large force, and shared in his defeat: after which he fell into the conqueror's hands, and was put to death. (Plut. Pomp. 12; Liv. JEpit. Ixxxix.; Oros. v. 21; Eutrop. v. 9.) The name is very variously written, but the above is probably the most correct form. [E. H. B.]

HICANUS, a statuary, who made "athletas et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque." (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34.) [P. S.]

HICESIUS ('iKe'tnos), a writer quoted by Clement of Alexandria, as having written a work concerning mysteries, in which he treated inciden­ tally of the religion of the Scythians. (Clem. Pro- trept.p.19.) [E. H. B.]

HICESIUS ('iKeenos), a physician, who lived probably at the end of the first century b. c., as he is quoted by Crito (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 3, vol. xiii. p. 786,7), and was shortly anterior to Strabo. He was a follower of Erasis-tratus, and was at the head of a celebrated medical school established at Smyrna. (Strab. xii. 8, sub fin.) He is several times quoted by Athenaeus, who says (ii. p. 59) that he was a friend of the physician Menodoms ; and also by Pliny, who calls him " a physician of no small authority." (H. N. xxvii. 14.) There are extant two coins, struck in his honour by the people of Smyrna, which are described and illustrated by Mead in his Dissert, de Numis quibusdam a Smyrnaeis in Medicorum Honorempercussis, Lond. 4to. 1724; see also Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 189, ed. vet. [W. A. G.]

HICETAON ('Ifce-rcta*/), a son of Laoraedon, and father of Melanippus, who is therefore called 'iKeTaovftrts. (Horn. II. xv. 546, xx. 238.) [L.S.]

HICETAS ('I/ceVas or 'I/ceV^s). 1. A Syra-cusan, contemporary with the younger Dionysius and Timoleon. He is first mentioned as a friend of Dion, after whose death (b. c. 353), his wife, Arete, and his sister Aristomache, placed themselves under the care of Hicetas. The latter was at first disposed to protect them, but was afterwards per­suaded by the enemies of Dion to consent to their destruction, and he accordingly placed them on board a ship bound for Corinth, with secret instruc­tions that they should be put to death upon the voyage. (Plut, Dion, 58.) In the disorders that

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