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tion of Schweighauser, Argentorati et Paris. 1806, 6 vols. in 12 parts (reprinted in London, 1818, in 6 vols., and the Lexicon Herodoteum of Schweighauser separately in 1824 and 1841, 8vo.). The editor had compared several new MSS., and was thus enabled to give a text greatly superior to that of his predecessors. The best edition after this is that of Gaisford (Oxford, 1824, 4 vols. 8vo.), who incorporated in it nearly all the notes of Wesseling, Valckenaer and Schweighauser, and also made a collation of some English MSS. A reprint of this edition appeared at Leipzig in 1824, 4 vols. 8vo. The last great edition, in which the subject-matter also is considered with reference to modern discoveries, is that of Bahr, Leipzig, 1830, &c. 4 vols. 8vo. Among the school editions, we mention those of A. Matthiae, Leipzig, 1825, 2 vols. 8vo. ; G. Long, London, 1830; and I. Bekker, Berlin, 1833 and 1837, 8vo. Among all the translations of Herodotus, there is none which surpasses in excellence and fidelity the German of Fr. Lange, Breslau, 1811, &c«, 2 vols. 8vo. The works written on Herodotus, or particular points of his work, are extremely numerous : a pretty complete account of the modern literature of Herodotus is given by Bahr in the Neue Jahrbucher fur Phi-lologie und Paedagogik, vol. xli. p. 37 1 , &c. ; but we shall confine ourselves to mentioning the principal ones among them, viz., J. Rennell, The Geographical System, of Herodotus, London, 1800, 4to, and 1832, 2 vols. 8vo. ; B. G. Niebuhr, in his Kleine PMloL Schriften, vol. i. ; Dahlmann, Hero-dot) aus seinem Buche sein Leben, Altona, 1823, 8vo., one of the best works that was ever written ; C. G. L. Heyse, De Herodoti Vita et Itineribus, Berlin, 1826, 8vo. ; H. F. Jager, Disputationes Herodoteae, Gottingen, 1828, 8vo. ; J. Kenrick, The Egypt of Herodotus, with notes and preliminary dissertations, London, 1841, 8vo. ; Bahr, Com-mentatio de Vita et Scriptis Herodoti, in the fourth volume of his edition, p. 374, &c.)
2. Of Chios, the son of Basilides, is mentioned by Herodotus the historian (viii. 132) as one of the ambassadors who, after the battle of Salamis, arrived in Aegina to call upon the Greeks to deliver Ionia. What may have induced the historian to mention him alone among the ambassadors is uncertain. (See above, No. 1.)
3. A son of Apsodorus of Thebes, a victor in the Heraclean, Isthmian, and other games, whose name is celebrated in Pindar's first Isthmian ode. He lived about 01. 80 — 83 ; his father, being expelled from Thebes, had gone to Orchomenos, but afterwards returned to Thebes. (See Dissen, ad Find.
4. A brother of the philosopher Democritus (Suid. s. v. A^fwfoprros), and perhaps the same as the one to whom Diogenes Laertius (ix. 34) refers in his account of Democritus. Whether he is identical with Herodotus, the author of a work Ilepl 'l&iriKodpov e<fyn€€ias (Diog. Laert. x. 4), cannot be decided.
, 5. Of Olophyxus in Thrace, is mentioned as the author of a work Ilepl NujU^aJy /coi fepwf. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'O\6<j>v£os ; Suid. s. v. 'O\6<pv}-i$ ; Bus-tath. ad Horn. H. v. 683.)
6. A logomimus, who lived at the court of An-tiochus II., and was highly esteemed by that king. (Athe,n. i. p. 19.)
history beginning with the death of Agathias. (Suid. s. v. Mcmvb'pos ; Codinus, de Orig. Constant. p. 26 ; Malalas, Cliron. i. p. 200.) It should be observed that in MSS. and early editions the name of Herodotus is frequently confounded with Hero-dorus and Heliodorus. Whether the work Tlepl ttjs 'O/i^pov Biorris, is the production of a grammar rian of the name of Herodotus, or whether the author's name is a mere invention, it is impossible to say ; thus much only we know, that some of the ancients themselves attributed it to Herodotus the historian. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Neo^ Te?xos > Suid. s. v. "Ofjivipos ; Eustath. ad Horn. II. p. 876.) [L. S.]
HERODOTUS ('HpoSoros), the name of several physicians, of whom the most eminent was, 1. A pupil of Athenaeus, or perhaps rather of Agathinus (Galen, De Differ. Puts. iv. 11, vol. viii. p. 751), who belonged to the sect of the Pneumatici (Id. De Simplic. Medicam. Temper, ac Facult. i. 29, vol. xi. p. 432). He lived probably towards the end of the first century after Christ, and resided at Rome, where he practised with great reputation and success. (Galen, De Differ. Puls. I.e.} He wrote some medical works, which are several times quoted by Galen and Oribasius, but of which only some fragments remain, most of which are to be found in Matthaei's Collection entitled XXI Ve-terum et Clarorum Medicorum Graecorum Varia Opuscula, Mosqu. 4to. 1808.
2. The son of Arieus, a native either of Tarsus or Philadelphia, who probably belonged to the sect of the Empirici. He was a pupil of Menodotus, and tutor to Sextus Empiricus, and lived therefore in the former half of the second century after Christ. (Suidas, s. v. 3e|(TTOs ; Diog. Laert. ix. §116.)
3. The physician mentioned by Galen (De Bon. et Prav. Aliment. Suco. c. 4. vol. vi. p. 775 ; De Mefli, Med. vii. 6. vol. x. p. 474), together with Euryphon, as having recommended human milk in cases of consumption, was probably a different person from either of the preceding, and may have been a contemporary of Euryphon in the fifth century b. c.
There is extant, under the name of Herodotus, a short Glossary of Ionic words, commonly printed together with the Glossary of Erotianus, and supposed to relate to the Hippocratic, Collection. Franzius, however, is inclined to the opinion that the little work is intended to explain, not the words used by Hippocrates, but those used by Herodotus the historian, and that hence it has been attributed by mistake to a physician or grammarian of the name of Herodotus.
Some persons have attributed to a physician named Herodotus two of.the treatises included in the collection of Galen's works, viz. the Introductio or Mediws, and the Definitions Medicae. But though it may be doubted whether these works belong to Galen, it is equally doubtful whether they were written by Herodotus. (See Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xiii. p. 184, ed. vet. ; J. G. F. Franz, Preface to his edition of the Glossaries of Erotianus, Galen, and Herodotus, Lips. 1780, 8vo.) [W.A.G.]