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Mariamne, and brother of Herod Agrippa I. .(Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. § 4.) He obtained the kingdom of Chalcis from Claudius at the request of his brother Agrippa (a. d. 41): he was at the same time honoured by the emperor with the praetorian dignity ; and after the death of Agrippa (a. d. 44), Claudius bestowed upon him the general su­perintendence of the temple and sacred treasury at Jerusalem, together with the right of appointing the high-priests. Of the latter privilege he availed himself, first to remove Cantheras, and appoint Joseph, the son of Camus, and again, subsequently to displace Joseph, and bestow that high dignity upon Ananias, the son of Nebedeus. These are all the events that are recorded of his reign, which lasted less than eight years, as he died in A. D. 48, when his petty kingdom was bestowed by Claudius upon his nephew, Herod Agrippa II. (Joseph. Ant. xix. 5. § 1, xx. 1. § 3, 5. § 2, B. J. ii. 11. §§ 5, 6 ; Dion Cass. Ix. 8.) He was twice married, first to Mariamne, .daughter of Olympias, the daughter of Herod the Great, by whom he had a son, Aristobulus ; secondly, to the accomplished Berenice, daughter of his brother Agrippa, who bore him two sons, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. § 4, xx. 5. §2.) [E. H.B.]

HERODES, surnamed PHILIPPUS, was son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of the high-priest Simon. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. § 4.) He was the first husband of Herodias, who afterwards divorced -him, contrary to the Jewish law, and married his half-brother, Herod Antipas. The surname of Philippus is not mentioned by Josephus, but it is clear that it is he, and not the tetrarch of Ituraea, who is meant by the Evange­ lists (Matth. xiv. 3; Mark, vi. 17 ; Luke, iii. 19), where they speak of Philip, the brother of Herod. (See Rosemniiller, Sclwl. in Nov. Test. vol. i. p. 3040 [E. H. B.]

HERODIANUS ('H/wtod'*), a writer on Roman history. He was a Greek, though he ap­pears to have lived for a considerable period in Rome, but without holding any public office. From his work, which is still extant, we gather that he, was still living at an advanced age in the reign of Gordianus III., who ascended the throne A. D. 238. Beyond this we know nothing respecting his life. His history extends over the period from the death of M. Aurelius (a. d. 180) to the commencement of the reign of Gordianus III. (a. d. 238), and bears the title, 'HpcoStcwou rfjs juerd MapKov /8a-<nAefas IffTopiav &i§\la oKrd. He himself informs us (i. 1. § 3, ii. 15. § 7) that the events of this period had occurred in his own lifetime. Photius (Cod. 99) gives an outline of the contents of the work, and passes a flattering encomium on the style of Herodian, which he describes as clear, vigorous and agreeable, preserving a happy medium between an utter disregard of art and elegance and a profuse employment of the artifices and pretti-nesses which were known under the name of Atticism, as well as between boldness and bom­bast ; adding that not many historical writers are his superiors. He appears to have had Thucydides before him to some extent as a model, both for style and for the general composition of his work, like him, introducing here and there speeches wholly or in part imaginary. In spite of occasional inaccuracies in chronology and geography, his nar­rative is in the main truthful and impartial; though Julius Capitolinus (Maxim, duo, c. 13) says of



him, Mandmino in odium Alexandra plurimum fa- mi. Others also charge him with showing too great a partiality for Pertinax. The best editions of Herodian are those by Irmisch, Leipzig, 1789 —1805, 5 vols. 8vo.; by F. A. Wolf, Halle, 1792, 8vo.; and by Bekker, Berlin, 1826. Notices of other editions will be found in Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 287, &c.) and Hoffinann (Lex. Bibl. vol. ii. p. 362, &c.). (Wolf's Narratio de Herodiano et Libro ejus, prefixed to his edition of Herodian ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 284, ed. Westermann.) [C. P. M.] HERODIA'NUS, AE'LIUS (Afruos 'Hpafca- v6$), one of the most celebrated grammarians of antiquity. He was the son of Apollonius Dys- colus [apollonius], and was born at Alexandria. From that place he appears to have removed to Rome, where he gained the favour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, to whom he dedicated his work on prosody. No further biographical particulars are known respecting him. The estimation in which he was held by subsequent grammarians was very great. Priscian styles him maximus auctor artis grammaticae. He was a very volu­ minous writer; but to give any thing like a correct list of his works (of which we possess only a few fragmentary portions) is very difficult; as in nu­ merous instances it is impossible to determine whether the titles given by writers who quoted or epitomised his works were the titles of distinct treatises, or only of portions of some of his larger works. The following appear to have been distinct works :—1. Ilepl 'Opdoypcupias, in three books, treating of ttoo^tijs, iroiorys, and avvra^is. 2. Hepl 2,vj>Taj-€<»)s 2Tot%e/wv. 3. ITe/>l TlaQwv, on the changes undergone by syllables and letters. 4. 2vfjLTr6<nov, written during a residence at Puteoli. 5. Ile/M rdfJLOv Kol 2uju§«&recws. 6. Upordffeis^ of which we know something through the Aicreis UpoTaff^wv Ttav 'HpaSiavov, written by the gram­ marian Orus, 7. 'Ovo/Awnicd. All the above works have entirely perished. The passages where they are quoted, with the names of some other treatises of less note, will be found in Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 282, &c.). 8. 3ETrifjL€piariJ.oi. This work was devoted to the explanation of dif­ ficult, obscure, and doubtful words, and of peculiar forms found in Homer. A meagre compilation from this highly valuable work was published from Parisian MSS. by J. F. Boissonade, London, 1819. Another abstract, which appears to give a better idea of the original work, is the 'ETn/tepio-juoi, pub­ lished in Cramer's Anecdota Gr. Oxon. vol. i. Several important quotations from this work are also found scattered in different parts of the scholia on Homer. The 2xrHJ-aTlcrfJI'i[)l 'Ofj^piKol^ appended by Sturz to his edition of the Etymologicum Gu- dianum, appears also to belong to the 'ETn/xe/noyzot of Herodianus. An 'o^wj/mktj Tlpocryb'ia, of which we find mention, may also have been a portion of it; but, like the 'attjk?) n/yotr^S/a, and 3Av6fj.a\os TLpoffiptiia (neither of whwh is extant), more pro­ bably belonged to the groat work on prosody. 9. 'H KaQ3 ^OAou, or KafloAiKi) UpofftpSla (called also Meyd^ Upoo-ySia), in twenty books. This work also was held in great repute by the successors of Herodianus. It seems to have .embraced not merely prosody, but most of those subjects now included in the etymological portion of grammar. An abstract of it was made by the grammarian Aristodemus, which, like the original work has

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