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from his first appointment to the throne by Antony and Octavian) and the seventieth of his age, B. c. 4.* He was honoured with a splendid funeral by his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed his suc­cessor in the kingdom, and was buried at Hero-dium, a fortified palace which he had himself erected, not far from Jericho. (Joseph. Ant. xvii. 8, JS. J. i. 33. §§ 8, 9.) Of his character it seems un­necessary to speak, after the narrative above given. There is abundant proof that he possessed great talents, and even great qualities, but these were little able to compensate for the oppression and tyranny which marked his government towards his subjects, not to speak of his frightful barbarities towards his own family.

Josephus is almost our sole authority for the events of his reign ; though the general outline of the facts which he relates is supported by incidental notices in the Greek and Roman writers, especially by Strabo (xvi. p. 765). Nevertheless, we cannot but deeply regret the loss of the contemporary history of Nicolas of Damascus, the friend and apologist of Herod, notwithstanding the partiality with which he is taxed by the Jewish historian.

Herod was married to not less than ten wives: viz. 1. Doris, the mother of Antipater, already mentioned; 2. Mariamne, the mother of Aristo- bulus and Alexander, as well as of two daughters ; 3, and 4, two of his own nieces, whose names are not mentioned, and by whom he had no children ; 5. another Mariamne, a daughter of Simon, whom he appointed high-priest; she was the mother of Herod Philip ; 6. a Samaritan, named Malthace, by whom he left three children, viz. Archelaus, Herod Antipas, and a daughter named Olympias ; 7. Cleopatra of Jerusalem, who was the mother of a son called Herod, otherwise unknown, and Philip, the tetrarch of Ituraea ; 8. Pallas, by whom he had a son named Phasael; 9. Phaedra, mother of Roxana ; and, lastly, Elpis, mother of Salome. In the preceding genealogical table those only of his wives are inserted whose offspring are of any im­ portance in history. . [E. H. B.]


HERODES AGRIPPA. [agrippa.] HERO'DES A'NTIPAS ('H^Srjs 'Avriiras), son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan. (Joseph. Ant. xvii. 1. $3, B. J. i. 28. § 4.) Ac­cording to the final arrangements of his father's will, Antipas obtained the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea, with a revenue of 200 talents, while the kingdom of Judaea devolved on his elder brother Archelaus. On the death of Herod both Antipas and Archelaus hastened to Rome, where the former secretly endeavoured, with the support of his aunt

* It must be observed that the death of Herod took place in the same year with the actual birth of Christ, but it is well known that this is to be placed four years before the date in general use as the Christian era. (See Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 254.)


Salome, to set aside this arrangement, and obtain the royal dignity for himself. Augustus, however, after some delay, confirmed in all essential points the provisions of Herod's will, and Antipas returned to take possession of his tetrarchy. On his way to Rome, he had seen and become enamoured of Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip; and after his return to Palestine, he married her, she having, in defiance of the Jewish law, divorced her first husband. He-had been previously married to a daughter of the Arabian prince Aretas, who quitted him in disgust at this new alliance, and retired to her father's court. Aretas subsequently avenged the insult offered to his daughter, as well as some differences that had arisen in regard to the frontiers of their respective states, by invading the dominions of Antipas, and totally defeating the army which was opposed to him. He was only restrained from farther pro­gress by the fear of Rome ; and Tiberius, on the complaint of Antipas, sent orders to Vitellius, the praefect of Syria, to punish this aggression. An­tipas himself is said by Josephus (xviii. 7. § 2) to have been of a quiet and indolent disposition, and destitute of ambition ; but he followed the ex­ample of his father in the foundation of a city on the lake of Gennesareth, to which he gave the name of Tiberias; besides which, he fortified and adorned with splendid buildings the previously existing cities of Sepphoris and Betharamphtha, and called the latter Julia in honour of the wife of Augustus. In a. d. 38, after the death of Tiberius and accession of Caligula, Herod Antipas was induced to undertake a journey to Rome, to solicit from Caligula in person the title of king, which had just been bestowed upon his nephew, Herod Agrippa. To this step he was instigated by the jealousy and ambition of his wife Herodias ; but it proved fatal to him. Agrippa, who was high in the favour of the Roman emperor, made use of all his influence to oppose the elevation of his uncle, whom he even accused of entertaining a treasonable correspondence with the Parthians. On this charge Antipas was deprived of his dominions, which were given to Agrippa, and sent into exile at Lyons (a. d. 39) ; from hence he was subse­quently removed to Spain, where he ended his days in banishment. Herodias, as she had been the cause of his disgrace, became the partner of his exile. (Joseph. Ant, xvii. 9,11, xviii. 2, 5, 7, B. J. ii. 2, 6, 9.)

It was Herod Antipas who imprisoned and put to death John the Baptist, who had reproached him with his unlawful connection with Herodias. (Matt. xiv. 3; Mark, vi. 17—28 ; Luke, iii. 19.) It was before him, also, that Christ was sent by Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, as belonging to his jurisdiction, on account of his supposed Galilean origin. (Luke, xxiii. 6—12.) He is erroneously styled Icing by St. Mark (vi. 14). We learn little either from Josephus or the Evangelists concerning his personal character or that of his administration ; but there are not wanting indications that if his government was milder than that of his father, it was yet far from an equitable one. (Concerning the chronology of his reign, see Winer's Biblisches Real WorterbiLcIi) vol. i. p. 570 ; and Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 489.) . [E.H.B.] HERO'DES A'TTICUS. [atticus, p. 413.] HERO'DES ('Hpw'Sijs), king of chalcis, was son of Aristobulus, the ill-fated son of the Asmonean

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