The Ancient Library

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On this page: Hercules – Herculius – Herculius Maximianus – Hercyna – Herdonius – Hereas – Herennia Etruscilla – Herennia Gens



quoted also by other ancient medical writers, and lie may perhaps be the physician mentioned by Martial (Epigr. vi. 78. 3). See C. G. Kuhn, Additam. ad Elench. Medic. Vet. a J. A. Fabric, in "Bill. Graeca " exhibitum. [W. A. G.]

HERCULES. [heracles.]

HERCULIUS ('Ep/covAios), praefectus prae- lorio Illyrici, A. d. 408—412, is probably the Herculius to whom one of the letters of Chrysostom is addressed. It is in answer to a letter from Herculius to Chrysostom, and expresses* Chrysos- tom's appreciation of the affection of Herculius for him, which was " known by all the city," i. e. of Constantinople. The letter was written during Chrysostom's exile, a. d. 404—407. (Chrysostom, Opera, vol. iii. p. 859, ed. Paris, 1834, &c.; Cod. Theod. 11. tit. 17. § 4; tit. 22. § 5 ; 12. tit. 1. § 172; 15. tit. 1. § 49.) [J. C. M.]



HERCYNA CEpuvva), a divinity of the lower world, respecting whom the following tradition is related. She was a daughter of Trophonius, and once while she was playing with Cora, the daughter of Demeter in the grove of Trophonius, near Leba­ deia in Boeotia, she let a goose fly away, which she carried in her hand. The bird flew into a cave, and concealed itself under a block of stone. When Cora pulled the bird forth from its hiding place, a well gushed forth from under the stone, which was called Hercyna. On the bank of the rivulet a temple was afterwards erected, with the statue of a maiden parrying a goose in her hand ; and in the cave there were two statues with staves surrounded by serpents, Trophonius and Hercyna, resembling the statues of Asclepius and Hygeia. (Paus. ix. 39. § 2.) Hercyna founded the worship of Deme­ ter at Lebadeia, who hence received the surname of Hercyna. (Lycoph. 153, with the note of Tzetzes.) Hercyna was worshipped at Lebadeia in common with Zeus, and sacrifices were offered to both in common. (Liv. xlv. 27.) [L. S.]

HERDONIUS, AP'PIUS, a Sabine chieftain, who, in b.c. 460, during the disturbances that preceded tne Terentilian law at Rome, with a band of outlaws and slaves, made himself master of the capitol. The enterprise was so well planned and conducted, that the first intimation of it to the people of Rome was the war-shout and trumpets of the invaders from the summit of the capitoline hill. Herdonius was most probably in league with a section of the patrician party, and especially with the Fabian house, one of whose members, Kaeso Fabius, had recently been exiled for his violence in the comitia. Without some connivance within the city, the exploit of Herdonius seems incredible. At the head of at least 4000 men (Liv. iii. 15; Dionys. x. 14), he dropped down the Tiber, passed unhailed under the walls of Rome, and through the Carmental gate, which, although from a religious feeling (Liv. ii. 49; Ov. Fasti, ii. 201), it was always open, was certainly not usually unguarded, and ascended the clivus capitolinus by a peopled street, the vicus jugalis. Herdonius proclaimed freedom to slaves who should join him, abolition of debts, and defence of the plebs from their oppres­sors. But his offers attracted neither bond nor free man,,and his demand that the exiles should be re­called was equally disregarded. His success indeed was confined to the capture of the citadel. On the .fourth day from his entry the capitol was re-taken,


and Herdonius and neariy all his followers were slain, after a desperate and protracted resistance. (Liv. iii. 15—19 ; Dionys. x. 14—17.) The ex­ ploit of Herdonius, although much misrepresented by both Livy and Dionysius, and probably by the annalists whom they consulted, throws considerable light on the political history of Rome in the first century of the republic. It is amply narrated by Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. pp. 293—296), and analysed by Arnold (Hist, of Rome, vol. i. c. xi. note 11.) [W. B. D.]

HERDONIUS, TURNUS, of Aricia in La-tium, having inveighed against the arrogance of Tarquin the Proud, and warned his countrymen against putting trust in him, Tarquin accused him of plotting his death. Witnesses were sub­orned, and weapons were conveyed by treacherous slaves into the house where Herdonius lodged. His guilt was therefore inferred, and Herdonius was condemned by the great assembly of the La­tins, and drowned in the Aqua Ferentina. (Liv. i. 50, 51 ; Dionys. iv. 45—48.) The latter his­torian relates the story with some differences, and makes Herdonius a native of Corioli. [W. B. D.]

HEREAS ('Hpeas), an historical writer, a na­ tive of Megara, quoted by Plutarch (Thes. 20, 32, Sol. 10.) [C. P. M.]



HERENNIA GENS, originally Samnite (Liv. ix. 3 ; Appian, Samnit. 4. § 3), and by the Sam­nite invasion established in Campania (Liv. iv, 37, vii. 38, xxxix. 13), became at a later period a plebeian house at Rome. (Cic. End. 45, ad Att. i. 18, 19; Sail. Hist. ii. ap. Gell. x. 20; Liv. xxiii. 43.) The Herennii were a family of rank in Italy. They were the hereditary patrons of the Marii. (Plut. Mar. 5.) Herennius was a leading senator of Nola in Campania (Liv. xxiii. 43) ; and M. Herennius was decurio of Pompeii about b. c. 63. (Plin. H. JV. ii. 51.) From a coin (see be­low), from the cognomen Siculus (Val. Max. ix. 12. § 6), and the settlement of an Herennius at Leptis as a merchant (Cic. in Verr. i. 5, v. 59), one branch at least of the family seems to have been engaged in commerce (Macrob. Sat. iii. 6 ; Serv. ad A en. viii. 363), especially in the Sicilian and African trade, and in the purchase and ex­portation of the silphium —ferula Tingitana — (Sprengel, Rei Herbar. p. 84), from Gyrene. (Plin. H. N. xix. 3.) The Herennii appear for the first time in the Fasti, b. c. 93. tinder the empire they held various provincial and military offices (Joseph. Antiq. xviii. 16; Tac. Hist. iv. 19 ; Dion Cass. Ixvii. 13; Plin. Ep. vii. 33); and the wife of the Emperor Decius (a. d. 249) was Herennia Etruscilla. [etruscilla ; etruscus.] The cog­nomens which occur under the republic are bal-bus, bassus, cerrinius, pontius, and siculus. As the surnames of Balbus, Bassus, and Cerrinius, have been omitted under these names, they are placed under the gentile name.

For the cognomens under the empire, see the alphabetical list on p. 408.

In the Herennian, as in other families of Sabel-lian origin, a peculiarity in the system of names is to be noted. To the family or paternal name was added that of the mother or wife. Thus the son of Cerrinius and Minia Paculla (Liv. xxxix. 13) is Minius Cerrinius, who, by marriage with an He­rennia, becomes Herennius Cerrinius. The son

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