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HERACLES,

his return to Tegea, he became, by Auge, the father of Telephus [auge], and then proceeded to Caly-don, where he demanded Deianeira, the daughter of Oeneus, for his wife. [deianeira; achelous,] The adventures which now follow are of minor im­portance, such as the expedition against the Dryo-pians, and the assistance he gave to Aegimius, king of the Dorians, against the Lapithae ; but as these events led to his catastrophe, it is necessary to subjoin a sketch of them.

Heracles had been married to Deianeira for nearly three years, when, at a repast in the house of Oeneus, he killed, by an accident, the boy Eu-nomus, the son of Architeles. The father of the boy pardoned the murder, as it had not been com­mitted intentionally; but Heracles, in accordance with the law, went into exile with his wife Deia­neira. On their road they came to the river Eue-nus, across which the centaur Nessus used to carry travellers for a small sum of money. Heracles himself forded the river, and gave Deianeira to Nessus to carry her across. Nessus attempted to outrage her: Heracles heard her screaming, and as the centaur brought her to the other side, Heracles shot an arrow into his heart. The dying centaur called out to Deianeira to take his blood with her, as it was a sure means for preserving the love of her husband. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 6; Diod. iv. 36; Soph. Track. 555, &c.; Ov. Met. ix. 201, &c. ; Senec. Here. Oet. 496, &c.; Paus. x. 38. § 1.) From the river Euenus, Heracles now proceeded through the country of the Dryopes, where he showed himself worthy of the epithet " the vora­cious," which is so often given to him, especially by late writers, for in his hunger he took one of the oxen of Theiodamas, and consumed it all. At last he arrived in Trachis, where he was kindly received by Ceyx, and conquered the Dryopes. He then assisted Aegimius, king of the Dorians, against the Lapithae, and without accepting a por­tion of the country which was offered to him as a reward. Laogoras, the king of the Dryopes, and his children, were slain. As Heracles proceeded to Iton, in Thessaly, he was challenged to single combat by Cycnus, a son of Ares and Pelopia (Hesiod. Scut. Her. 58, &c.) ; but Cycnus was slain. King Amyntor of Ormenion refused to allow Heracles to pass through his dominions, but had to pay for his presumption with his life. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 7 ; Diod. iv. 36, &c.)

Heracles now returned to Trachis, and there collected an army to take vengeance on Eurytus of Oechalia. Apollodorus and Diodorus agree in making Heracles spend the last years of his life at Trachis, but Sophocles represents the matter in a very different light, for, according to him, Heracles •was absent from Trachis upwards of fifteen months without Deianeira knowing where he was. During that period he was staying with Qmphale in Lydia; and without returning home, he proceeded from Lydia at once to Oechalia, to gain possession of lole, whom he loved.. (Soph. Track. 44, &c.; 248, &c., 351, &c.) With the assistance of his allies, Heracles took the town of Oechalia, and slew Eurytus and his sons, but carried his daughter lole with him as a prisoner. On his return home he landed at Cenaeum, a promontory of Euboea, and erected an altar to Zeus Cenaeus, and sent his companion, Lichas, to Trachis to fetch him a white garment, which he intended to use during the sacrifice. Deianeira, who heard from Lichas Tespect-

.; HERACLES.

ing lole, began to fear lest she should supplant her in the affection of her husband, to prevent which she steeped the white garment he had demanded in the preparation she had made from the blood of .Nessus. Scarcely had the garment become warm on the body of Heracles, when the poison which was contained in the ointment, and had come into it from the poisoned arrow with which Heracles had killed Nessus, penetrated into all parts of his body, and caused him the most fearful pains. Heracles seized Lichas by his feet, and threw him into the sea. He wrenched off his garment, but it stuck to his flesh, and with it he tore whole pieces from his body. In this state he was conveyed to Trachis. Deianeira, on seeing what she had unwittingly done, hung herself; and Heracles commanded Hylhis, his eldest son, by Deianeira, to marry lole as soon as he should arrive at the age of manhood. He then ascended Mount Oeta, raised a pile of wood, ascended, and ordered it to be set on fire. No one ventured to obey him, until at length Poeas the shepherd, who passed by, was prevailed upon to comply with the desire of the suffering hero. When the pile was burning, a cloud came down from heaven, and amid peals of thunder carried him into Olympus, where he was honoured with im­mortality, became reconciled with Hera, and mar­ried her daughter Hebe, by whom he became the father of Alexiares and Anicetus. (Horn. Od. xi. 600, &c.; Hes. Theog. 949, &c.;- Soph. Track. 1. c., Philoct. 802; Apollod. ii. 7. §. 7 ; Diod. iv. 38; Ov. Met. ix. 155, &c.; Herod, vii. 198 ; Co-non, Narrat. 17 ; Paus. iii. 18. § 7 ; Pind. Nem. i. in fin., x. 31, &c., Isthm. iv. 55, &c. ; Virg. Aen. viii. 300, and many other writers.)

The wives and children of Heracles are enume­rated by Apollodorus (ii. 7. § 8), but we must refer the reader to the separate articles. We may, however, observe that among the very great number of his children, there are no daughters, and that Euripides is the only writer who mentions Macaria as a daughter of Heracles by Deianeira. We must also pass over the .long series of his surnames, and proceed to give an account of his worship in Greece. Immediately after the apotheosis of He­racles, his friends who were present at the termi­nation of his earthly career offered sacrifices to him as a hero ; and Menoetius established at Opus the worship of Heracles as a hero. This example was followed by the Thebans, until at length Heracles was worshipped throughout Greece as a divinity (Diod. iv. 39 ; Eurip. Here. Fur. 1331) ; but he, Dionysus and Pan, were regarded as the youngest gods, and his worship was practised in two ways, for he was worshipped both as a god and as a hero. (Herod, ii. 44, 145.) One of the most ancient temples of Heracles in Greece was that at Bura, in Aclmia, where he had a peculiar oracle. (Paus. vii 25. § 6; Plut. de Malign. Herod. 31.) In the neighbourhood of Thermopylae, where Athena, to please him, had called forth the hot spring, there was an altar of Hejacles, surnamed jueAcfywrvyos (Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 1047 ; Herod, vii. 176); and it should be observed that hot springs in general were sacred to Heracles. (Diod. v. 3 ; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. xii. 25 ; Liv. xxii. 1; Strab. pp. 60, 172, 425, 428.) In Phocis he had a temple under the name of {juffoyvvvis ; and as at Rome, women were not allowed to take part in his worship, probably on account of his having been poisoned by Deianeira. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 57,

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