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HERACLEIDAE.

$ 147)j though Pindar places it in the neighbour­hood of Thebes. {Pytli. ix. 137; comp. Anton. Lib. I. c ; Herod, ix. 27 ; Eurip. Heracl.) After the battle, the Heracleidae entered Peloponnesus, and maintained themselves there for one year. But a plague, which spread over the whole peninsula, compelled them (with the exception of Tlepole-mus, who went to Rhodes) to return to Attica, where, for a time, they again settled in the Attic tetrapolis. From thence, however, they proceeded to Aegimius, king of the Dorians, about the river Peneius, to seek protection. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 2 ; Strab. ix. p. 427.) Diodorus (iv. 57) does not mention this second stay in Attica, and he repre­sents only the descendants of Hyllus as living among the Dorians in the country assigned to Heracles by Aegimius: others again do not notice this first expedition into Peloponnesus (Pherecyd. ap. Anton. Lib. I. c.), and state that Hyllus, after the defeat of Eurystheus, went with the other Heracleidae to Thebes, and settled there at the Electrian gate. The tradition then goes on to say fha& Aegimius adopted Hyllus, who, after the lapse of three yeacs,, in conjunct-ion with a band of Dorians, undertook aa expedition against Atreus, who, having married a daughter, of Eurystheus, had become king of Mycenae and: Tir^as, They marched across the Corinthian isthmus^ and first met Echemus of Tegea, who fought for the interest of the Pelopidae, the principal opponents of the Heracleidae. Hyllus fell in single combat with Echemus, and according to an agreement which the two had entered into, the Heracleidae were not to make any further attempt upon the peninsula within the next fifty years. They accordingly went to Tricorythus, where they were allowed by the Athenians to take up their abode. During the period which now followed (ten years after the death of Hyllus), the Trojan war took place ; and thirty years after the Trojan war Cleodaeus, son of Hyllus, again invaded Peloponnesus; and about twenty years later Aristomachus, the son of Cleo­daeus, undertook the fourth expedition. But both heroes fell. Not quite thirty years after Aristoma­chus (that is, about 80 years after the destruction of Troy), the Heracleidae prepared for a great and final attack. Temenus, Cresphontes, and Aristo-demus, the sons of Aristomachus, after having re­ceived the advice of an oracle, built a fleet on the Corinthian gulf; but this fleet was destroyed, be­cause Hippotes, one of the Heracleidae, had killed Carnus, an Acarnanian soothsayer ; and Aristode-mus was killed by a flash of lightning. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 2; Paus. iii. 1. § 5.) An oracle now or­dered them to take a three-eyed man for their commander. He was found in the person of Oxy-lus, the son of Andraemon. The expedition now successfully sailed from Naupactus towards Rhion in Peloponnesus. (Paus. viii. 5. § 4). Oxylus, keeping the invaders away from his own kingdom of Elis, led them through Arcadia. Cresphontes is said to have married the daughter of the Arca­dian king, Cypselus, and Polycaon Euaechme, the daughter of Hyllus. Thebans, Trachiniaris, and Tyrrhenians, are further said to have supported the Heracleidae and Dorians. (Paus. iv. 3. § 4, viii. 5. §4; Schol. ad Soph. Aj. 17; Eurip. Phoen. 1386 ; Pind. Pytii. v. 101, Isthm. vii. 18.) Being thus strongly supported in various ways, the Hera­cleidae and Dorians conquered Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, who ruled over Argos, Mycenae, and

HERACLEIDES.

Sparta. (Apollod. 1. c. ; Paus. v. 3; Polyaeiv. i. 9.) The conquerors now succeeded without diffi­culty, for many of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus spontaneously opened their gates to them, and other places were delivered up to them by treachery. (Paus. ii. 4. § 3, iii. 13. § 2, iv. 3. § 3, v. 4. $ 1 ; Strab. viii. p. 365.) They then distributed the newly acquired possessions among themselves by lot: Temenus obtained Argos ; Procles and Eu­rystheus, the twin sons of Aristodemus, Lacedae-mon ; and Cresphontes, Messenia.

Such are the traditions about the Heracleidae and their conquest of Peloponnesus. The com­paratively late period to which these legends refer is alone sufficient to suggest that we have not be­fore us a purely mythical story, but that it contains a genuine historical substance, notwithstanding the various contradictions contained in the accounts. But a critical examination of the different traditions belongs to a history of Greece, and we refer the reader to Mailer's Dorians, book i. chap. 3 ; Thirl-wall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i.'p. 282, £c., 8vo edit; Bernardi ten Haar, Commentatio praemio ornata, qua respubl. ad quaestionem: Enarrentur Heracli-darum incursiones in Peloponnesum earumque causae atqite effeclus eacponantur, Groningen, 1830. [L. S.]

HERACLEIDES ('tya/cAe^s). 1. A citizen of Mylasa in Caria, who commanded the Carian Greeks in their successful resistance to the arms of Persia after the revolt of Aristagoras, b. c. 498. The Persian- troops fell into an ambuscade which had been prepared. £o_r them, and were cut to pieces, together with their generals, Daurises, Amorges, and Sisimaces. (Herod. y. 12.1.)

2. A Syracusan, son of Lysima&to, was one of the three generals appointed by th% Syracusans, after the first defeat they suffered from the Athe­nians on their arrival in Sicily, b. c. 415. His colleagues were Hermocrates and Sicanus, and they were invested with full powers, the late defeat being justly ascribed by Hermocrates to the too great number of the generals, and their want of sufficient control over their troops. (Thuc. vi. 73 ; Diod. xiii. 4.) They were deposed from their command in the following summer, on account of their failure in preventing the progress of the Athenian works. Of the three generals appointed in their place, one was also named Heracleides. (Thuc. vi. 103.)

3. A Syracusan, son of Aristogenes, was one of the commanders of the Syracusan squadron sent to co-operate with the Lacedaemonians and their allies. He joined Tissaphernes at Ephesus just in time to take part in the defeat of the Athenians under ThrasyUus, B. c. 409. (Xen. Hell. i. 2. § 8, &c.)

4. A Syracusan, who held the chief command of the mercenary forces under the younger Diony^ sius. (Diod. xvi. 6; Pint. Dion, 32.) We have little information as to the causes which led to his exile from Syracuse, but it may be inferred, from an expression of Plutarch (Dion, 12), that he was suspected of conspiring with Dion and others to overthrow the tyrant: and it seems clear that he must have fled from Syracuse either at the same time with Dion and Megacles, or shortly after­wards. Having joined the other exiles in the Peloponnesus, he co-operated with Dion in his pre­parations for the overthrow of Dionysius, and the liberation of Syracuse, but did not accompany him when he actually sailed, having remained behind

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