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HERACLEIDAE.

lasgis, Worshipped at lolcos. But thd principal place of her worship was Argos, hence called the Scw/^a *Hpay; (Find. Nem. x. init.; comp. Aesch}'!. Suppl. 297.) According to tradition, Hera had disputed the possession of Argos with Poseidon, but the river-gods of the country adjudicated it to her. (Paus. ii. 15. § 5.) Her most celebrated sanctuary was situated between Argos and My­cenae, at the foot of Mount Euboea. The vestibule of the temple contained ancient statues of the Charites, the bed of Hera, and a shield which Menelaus had taken at Troy from Euphorbus. The sitting colossal statue of Hera in this temple, made of, gold and ivory, was the work of Poly* cletus. She wore a crown on her head, adorned with the Charites and Horae ; in the one hand she held a pomegranate, and in the other a sceptre headed with a cuckoo. (Paus. ii. 17, 22 ; Strab. p. 373; Stat. TJieb. i. 383.) Respecting the great quinquennial festival celebrated to her at Argos, See Diet, of Ant. s. v. wHpaia. Her worship was very ancient also at Corinth (Paus. ii. 24, 1, &c.; Apollod. i. 9. § 28), Sparta (iii. 13. § 6, 15. § 7), in Samos (Herod, iii. 60 ; Paus. vii.4. § 4 ; Strab. p. 637), at Sicyon (Paus. ii. 11. -§ 2), Olympia (v. 15. § 7, &c.), Epidaurus (Thucyd. v. 75 ; Paus. ii. 29. § 1), Heraea in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 26. § 2), and many other places.

Respecting the real significance of Hera, the ancients themselves offer several interpretations: some regarded her as the personification of the at­ mosphere (Serv. ad Aen. i. 51), others as the queen of heaven or the goddess of the stars (Eurip. Helen. 1097), or as the goddess of the moon (Pint. Qyaest. Rom. 74), and she is even confounded with Ceres, Diaiia, and Pros'erpina. (Serv. ad Virg* Georg. i. 5). According to modern views, Hera is the great goddess of nature, who was every where worshipped from the earliest times. The Romans identified their goddess Juno with the Greek Hera {JuNO]. We still possess several representations of Hera. The noblest image, and which was after­ wards looked upon as the ideal of the goddess, was the statue by Polycletus. She was usually repre­ sented as a majestic woman at a mature age, with a beautiful forehead, large and widely opened eyes, and with a grave expression commanding reve­ rence. Her hair was adorned with a crown or a dia­ dem. A veil frequently hangs down the back of her head, to characterise her as the bride of Zeus, and, in fact, the diadem, veil, sceptre, and peacock are her ordinary attributes. A number of statues and heads of Hera still exist. (Hirt, Myihol. Bil^ derb. i. p. 22 ; comp. Muller, Dorians, ii. 10. § 1.) [L. S.]

HERACLEA, daughter of Hieron II., king of Syracuse, was married to a Syracusan named Zo'ippus. Though her husband was a man of a quiet and unambitious character, and had taken no part lii the schemes of Andranodorus and Themistus, after the death of Hieronymus, the unhappy He- raclea was nevertheless involved in the sentence of proscription passed on th'e whole house of Hieron at the instigation of Sopater, and was but to death together with her two daughters. It is said that the people relented, and revoked the sentence against her, but not until it was too late. (Liv. xxiv. 26.) [E. H. Bj

HERACLEIDAE ('HpdKAei&ai), a patronymic from Heracles, and consequently given to all the sona and descendants 'of the Greek Heracles ; but

HERACLEIDAE.

the name is also applied in a narrower sense to those descendants of the hero who, in conjunction with the Dorians, invaded and took possession of Peloponnesus.

The many sons of Heracles are enumerated by Apollodorus (ii. 7. § 8), though his list is very far from being complete ; and a large number of tribes or noble families of Greece traced their origin to Heracles. In some of them the belief in their descent from Heracles seems to have arisen only from the fact, that the hero was worshipped by a par­ticular tribe. The principal sons and descendants of Heracles are treated of in separate articles, and we shall here confine ourselves to those Heracleidae Avhose conquest of Peloponnesus forms the transi­tion from mythology to history. It was the will of Zeus that Heracles should rule over the country of the Perseids, at Mycenae and Tiryns. Through Hera's cunning, however, Eurystheus had been put into the place of Heracles* and the latter had become the servant of the former. .After the death of the two, the claims of Heracles devolved upon the sons and descendants of Heracles. The leader of these Heracleidae was Hyllus, the eldest of the four sons of Heracles by Deianeira. The descendants of Heracles, who, according to the tradition of the Dorians (Herod, v. 72), were in reality Achaeans, ruled over Dorians, as Heracles had received for himself and his descendants one third of the dominions of the Doric king, Aegimius, for the assistance he had given him against the Lapithae. The countries to which the Heracleidae had especial claims were Argos, Lacedaemon, and the Messenian Pylos, which Heracles himself had subdued: Elis, the. kingdom of Augeas, might like^ wise be said to have belonged to him. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 2, &c.; Paus. ii. 18. § 6, &c., v. 3. § 1, &c.) The Heracleidae, in conjunction with the Dorians, invaded Peloponnesus, to take possession of those countries and rights which their ancestor had duly acquired. This expedition is called the return of the Heracleidae, Koftoftos r£>v 'HpaKA€z8coj>. (Comp. Thuc. i. 12; Isocrat. Archid. 6.) They did not, however, succeed in their first attempt; but the legend mentions five different expeditions, of which we have the following accounts. Accord­ing to some, it happened that, after the demise of Heracles, his son, Hyllus, with his brothers and a band of Arcadians, was staying with Ceyx at Trachis. As Eurystheus demanded their surrender, and Ceyx was unable to protect them, they fled to various parts of Greece, until they were received as suppliants at Athens, at the altar of Eleos, Mercy, (Apollod. ii. 8. § 1 ; Dipd. iv. 57; Pans, i. 32. § 5 ; Longin. 27). According to the Hera­cleidae of Euripides, the sons of Heracles were at first staying at Argos, and thence went to Trachis^ Thessaly, and at length to Athens. (Comp. Anton. Lib. 33i) Demophon, the son of Theseus, received thein^ and they settled in the Attic tetrapolis. Eurystheus, to whom the Athenians refused to surrender the fugitives, now made war on the Athenians with a large army, but was defeated by the Athenians under lolmis, Theseus, and Hyllus, and was slain with his sons. Hyllus took his head to his grandmother, Alcmene ; and the Athe­nians of later times showed the tomb of Eurystheus in front of the temple of the Pallenian Athena. The battle itself was very celebrated in the Attic stories as the battle of the Seiroman rock, on the coast of the Saronic gulf (comp, Dem. de Coron*

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