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On this page: Hem – Henioche – Heniochus – Henricus

HENIOCHUS.

know the title and contents of the fourth book alone—" Bellum Punicum posterius " (Priscian. vii. p. 767, ed. Putsch) ; those of the preceding books are merely matter of conjecture. Priscian, however, cites from a fifth book (super adi. ver. Aen. vi. p. 1254), and there were probably even more. (Niebuhr, Lectures on Rom. Hist. vol. i. p. 37.) Pliny (H. N. xiii. 13, xxix. 1) calls Hemina w vetustissimus auctor," and " auctor ex antiquis." He derived his information from genuine sources, and synchronised with the Greeks, placing th? age of Homer more than 160 years after the Trojan war. (Gellius, xvii. 21.) Hemina had read, and probably borrowed, from Cato's Origines (comp. Priscian, x. p. 903, with Serv. ad Aen. i. 421); and, on the other hand, Sallust, whose propensity for archaisms is obvious, seems to have studied Hemina, since the words " omnia orta occidunt, et aucta senescunt," in the prooemiiim of the Jugur- thine war, singularly resemble a fragment, " quae nata sunt, ea omnia denasci aiunt," of the second book of Hemina's annals, quoted by Nonius (de­ nasci, decrescere). It is, however, remarkable, that neither Livy, Dionysius, nor Plutarch, mention Hemina by name among their several authorities ; nor does Cicero include him in his catalogue of the early annalists and historians of Rome. (De Or. ii. 12, DeLeg. 1,2.) From the frequent citations of Hemina by the grammarians Nonius, Priscian, and Servius, his diction would seem to have been at least idiomatic, and he furnished the antiquarians and encyclopaedists, Macrobius (Sat. i. 13, 16, iii. 4), Gellius (xvii. 21. § 3), Pliny (H. N. xiii. 13, xviii. 2, xix. 1, xxix. 1, xxxii. 2), and Solinus (8), with some curious traditions of the past. The fragments of Hemina's history are collected and arranged by Krause (Vit. et Fragm. Vet. Hist. Rom. pp. 155—166). [W. B. D.]

HEMl'THEON ('H/tifl&w), a Sybarite of the vilest character, and the author of an obscene work. He is mentioned by Lucian (Adv. Indoctum, c. 23, and, according to the conjecture of Solanus, Pseu~ dolog. c. 3). It is thought that he is the writer re­ ferred to in a passage of Ovid ( Trist. ii. 417), and, if the common reading of the passage is correct, he appears to have flourished not long before that poet. But Heinsius (ad loc.) conjectures that for w nu- per " we should read " turpem," in which case, the age of Hemitheon remains undetermined. If it is to him that Ovid refers, it may be gathered that his work was a poem, entitled Sylaritis. (Politian, Miscellanea, c. 15 ; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. viii. p. 159.) [J. C. M.J

HENIOCHE ('H^x*7), a daughter of Creon of Thebes, to whom, and to whose sister Pyrrha, statues were erected at the entrance of the temple of the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes. (Paus. ix. 10. § 3.) The wife of Creon, whom Sophocles calls Eurydice, is likewise called by Hesiod (Scut. 83) Henioche. [L. S.]

HENIOCHUS ('Hw'oxoy), an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, whose plays, as men­tioned by Suidas, were: Tpox^os ' Topyoves, IIoAvirp^jUw^, ©wpvKiov, $i\€ratpos, Als e|cMraTcty4€wy, a few fragments of which are preserved by Athenaeus (vi. p. 271, a. ix. p. 296, d. p. 408, a. xi. p. 483, e.) and Stobaeus (Serm. xliii. 27). Suidas (s. v. -rroAueu/cTos) has made, a curious blunder, calling Heniochus a play by tide comic poet Polyeuctus. The Polyeuctus, who gave the title to the play of Heniochus, was an

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HENRICUS.

orator in the time of Demosthenes. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 421, vol. iii. p. 560; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 448.) [P. S.J

HENRICUS (EvpMos), HENRY, a Greek emperor (a. d. 1206—1216), the second son of Baldwin VIII., count of Flanders and Hainaut, was born about 1176, and succeeded his elder brother Baldwin on the throne of Constantinople in 1206. [balduinus I.] Henry was one of the leading chiefs in the great expedition of the Latin barons against Constantinople, in 1204, and in the division of the empire was rewarded with territories in Asia, which, however, he had first to wrest from Theodore Lascaris and the other leaders of the rebellious Greeks. He defeated Lascaris in a bloody battle near Adramyttium in Mysia, in

1205. and the conquest of Bithynia was the fruit of his victory. The emperor's campaign against the Bulgarians obliged him to repair to the other side of the Bosporus, and he left Asia at the head of 20,000 Armenian mercenaries, with whom he-marched upon Adrianople. Before he had reached that town, he was informed that Baldwin, without waiting for the arrival of his brother, had impru­dently engaged a pitched battle with the Bulgarian king, Joannicus or Calo-Joannes, that the imperial troops had suffered a severe defeat, and that no • body knew what had become of the emperor (15th of April, 1205). In this emergency, Henry left his army, and hastening alone to the field of battle near Adrianople, arrived in time to save the im­perial army from utter destruction. The fate of Baldwin being entirely unknown, Henry was chosen regent, and he conducted his forces back to Constantinople. The Bulgarian king followed in his steps, burnt Philippopolis, and ravaged all Thrace in a most savage manner. He reckoned upon the assistance of the discontented Greeks, and, had they joined him, the fate of the new Latin empire of Constantinople would have been sealed j but his unheard-of cruelties showed the Greeks that among their foreign masters the Bul­garian was the worst; and the inhabitants of Adrianople, after having defended their town against Henry as an usurper and tyrant, now-opened their' gates, and received him within their walls with acclamations of joy. This was in

1206. It was then known that the emperor Bald­win was a prisoner of the king of Bulgaria, and in the summer of 1206 the news came of his melan­choly death. Henry, known as a skilful general, endeared to most of the Latin barons for having saved them after the defeat of Adrianople, and moreover next of kin to his brother, was unani­mously chosen emperor, and crowned at Constanti­nople on the 20th of August, 1206. At the same time Theodore Lascaris was recognised by a large number of towns and villages as lawful emperor, and took up his residence at Nicaea. From that time down to 1261, there was a Latin-Byzantine and a Greek-Byzantine empire, to which we must add a third, the Greek empire of the Comneni at Trebizond. An alliance between the king of Bul­garia and Theodore Lascaris placed Henry in great danger. He kept the field in Thrace and Asia with great bravery, and found additional strength in an alliance with the Marquis of Montferrat, lord or king of Thessalonica, whose daughter Agnes he married ; but he lost her soon afterwards. In 1207 Joannicus died, and Henry concluded apo­litical marriage with his daughter, which led to a

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