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HARPAGUS.

wife of Ariston. She wore it for a time, but at last her youngest son was seized with madness, and set fire to the house, in which she perished with all her treasures. (Athen. vi. p. 232 ; Parthen. jErot.25.) [L. S.]

HARMONIA, daughter of Gelon, the son of Hieron II., king of Syracuse. She was married to a Syracusan named Themistus, who, after the death of Hieronjimis (b.c. 215) was elected one of the captains-general of the republic ; but these being soon overthrown by a fresh revolution, in which Themistus perished, a decree was passed condemn­ ing to death all surviving members of the family of Hieron; and, in pursuance of this barbarous reso­ lution, Harmonia was immediately put to death, together with Demarata and Heraclea, the daugh­ ters of Hieron. (Liv. xxiv. 24, 25; Val. Max. iii. 2. ezt. § 9.) [E. H. B.]

HARPAGUS ("ApTrayos). 1. A noble Me­dian, whose preservation of the infant Cyrus, with the events consequent upon it, are related under cyrus. He became one of the generals of Cyrus, and suggested the stratagem of opposing camels to the Lydian cavalry. (Herod, i. 80.) He succeeded mazaces in the work of reducing the Greek cities of Asia Minor ; and he employed against them the ancient oriental mode of attack, which seems to have been new to the Greeks, of casting up a mound against the city. He first attacked Pho-caea, demanding of its inhabitants the demolition of only one bulwark, and the dedication of a single house, in token of submission. The Phocaeans demanded a day to deliberate; and Harpagus, per­ceiving their design, drew off his army. Mean­while, the Phocaeans took to their ships in a body, with all their movable property, and left the city, which Harpagus garrisoned. Before, however, the Phocaeans quitted the Aegean, on their voyage to Corsica, they returned to their city, and massacred the Persian garrison. The Teians were next as­saulted ; and they too, as soon as Harpagus had raised his mound high enough to master their wall, deserted their city. The other Ionian cities were reduced after a brave struggle; but none of their inhabitants proceeded to the same extremity as those of Phocaea and Teos: they stayed at home under the Persian yoke. After the conquest of the cities on the continent, the lonians of the islands submitted to Cyrus of their own accord. The subjugated lonians and Aeolians contributed to swell the army of Harpagus, who now proceeded against the Carians, the Cannians, and the Lycians, and the Dorian cities on the coast of Caria. Of the Carians, the strong city of Pedasus alone offered any resistance. The Lacedaemonian colony of Cnidos had commenced preparations for defence while Harpagus was still engaged in Ionia, by digging through the isthmus which joined their territory to the mainland ; but they had desisted at the command of a Delphic oracle, which told them that, if it had been the will of Zeus, their isthmus would have been an island by nature. They quietly surrendered to Harpagus.

The Lycians showed far more spirit. The people of Xanthus gave battle to Harpagus before their city; and when they had been defeated by his superior numbers, and were beaten back into the city, they collected all their property, with their wives, children, and servants, into the citadel, which they then burnt, while they themselves sal­lied out, and -fell fighting to a man. The battle-

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HARPALUS.

scene represented upon one of the sides of a sar­cophagus in ancient Xanthus, which was dis­covered by Mr. Fellows, and is now deposited in the British Museum, is supposed to represent the taking of Xanthus by Harpagus, whose name is also said to occur in an inscription in the Lyciau language. (Fellows, Lycia, p. 276, 1841.) We hear nothing more of Harpagus after the conquest of Asia Minor. (Herod, i. 162—177.) Diodorus (ix. 35 ; Excerpt. Vat. pp. 27—29) relates a story about the answer of Harpagus to an embassy of the Asiatic Greeks to Cyrus, which is identical in substance (though the parable is different) with the story which Herodotus tells of the reply of Cyrus to the same embassy, (i. 141; cyrus, p. 921, b.)

2. A Persian general, under Dareius I., took Histiaeus prisoner. (Herod, i. 28—30; histi- aeus.) [P. S.]

HARPALUS ("ApTraAos). 1. A Macedonian, son of Machatas, who belonged to the family of the princes of Elymiotis, and nephew of Philip, king of Macedon, the latter having married Phila, a sister of Machatas. Notwithstanding this connection, the house of the Elymiot princes seems to have been always unfavourably disposed towards Philip, who had in fact deprived them of their hereditary dominions ; and though we find Harpalus residing at the court of the Macedonian king, and even on one occasion employed by him on a mission of some importance, it appears that he did not enjoy much of his confidence. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 669 ; Plut. ApopMh. p. 681, ed. Reiske.) It is perhaps to this cause that we are to attribute his close attachment to Alexander, and his participation in the intrigues for the marriage of that prince with the daughter of Pixodarus, a scheme which gave so much offence to Philip, that all those who were thought to have taken part in it were banished from Macedonia, Harpalus among the rest. But this temporary disgrace was productive, both to him and his com­panions in exile, of the greatest subsequent advan­tages, for immediately on the death of Philip, Alexander not only recalled those who had suffered on his account, but promoted them to important and confidential offices. Harpalus, being unfitted by his constitution of body for services in war, was appointed to the superintendence of the treasury, and in this capacity accompanied Alexander to Asia. But he proved unfaithful to his trust, and shortly before the battle of Issus was induced (probably by the consciousness of peculation and the fear of punishment) to take to flight. He made his escape to Greece, and was lingering at Megara, when he received letters from Alexander intreating his return, and promising entire forgive­ness for the past. He, in consequence, rejoined the king at Tyre on his return from Egypt (b. c. 331), and not only obtained the promised pardon, but was reinstated in his former important situa-? tion. (Plut. Aleoc. 10; Arrian, Anab. iii. 6.) When Alexander, after the conquest of Persia and Media, determined to push on into the interior of Asia, in pursuit of Dareius, he left Harpalus at Ecbatana, with 6000 Macedonian troops, in charge of the royal treasures. From thence he appears to have removed to Babylon, and to have held the important satrapy of that province as well as the administration of the treasury. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 19. § 13 ; Plut. Alex. 35 ; Diod. xvii. 108.) It-was here that, during the absence of Alexander

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