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tempted to pass into Sicily. His first attempt was easily baffled, and some of his ships fell into the hands of Hanno, who sent them back to him with a friendly message ; but, on receiving a haughty answer, he declared that he would not suffer the Romans even to wash their hands in the sea. Never­theless, Claudius eluded his vigilance, and landed at Messana, where he held a conference with the Mamertines, in which Hanno having been incau­tiously induced to take a part, was treacherously seized by the Romans and detained a prisoner. In order to procure his liberty, he consented to with­draw the garrison from the citadel, and surrender it to the Romans ; a concession, for which, on his return to Carthage, the council of elders condemned him to be crucified. (Dion Cass. Fr. Vat. 59, 60 ; Zonar. viii. 8, 9 ; Polyb. i. 11.)

8. Son of Hannibal, was sent ta Sicily by the Carthaginians with a large force immediately after the events just related. Alarmed at the support given to the Mamertines by the Romans, he con­cluded an alliance with Hieron, and they has­tened to besiege Messana with their combined forces (b. c. 264). Hieron encamped on the south side of the town, while Hanno established his army on the north, and his fleet lay at Cape Pelorus. Yet he was unable to prevent the passage of the Roman army, and the consul, Appius Claudius, landed at Messana with a force of 20,000 men, with which he first attacked and defeated Hieron, and then turned his arms against the Carthagi­nians. Their camp was in so strong a position, that they at first repulsed the Romans, but were afterwards defeated, and compelled to retire towards the west of Sicily, leaving the open country at the mercy of the enemy. (Diod. Exc. Hoeschel. xxiii. 2; Polyb. i. 11, 12, 15; Zonar.

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vin. 9.)

It seems probable that this Hanno is the same as is styled by Diodorus " the elder " (6 Trpea^repos), when he is next mentioned, in the third year of the war (Diod. Exc. Hoeschel. xxiii. 8): of this, how­ever, there is no proof. Hannibal, the other Cartha­ginian general in Sicily, was at that time shut up in Agrigentum, where he had been besieged, or rather blockaded, by the .Romans more than five months, and was now beginning to suffer from want of provisions, when Hanno was ordered to raise the siege. For this purpose he assembled at Lilybaeum an army of 50,000 men, 6000 horse, and 60 elephants, with which formidable force he advanced to Heraclea; but though he made him­self master of Erbessus, where the Romans had established their magazines, and thus reduced them for a time to great difficulties ; and though he at "first obtained some advantages by means of ^ his Numidian cavalry, he was eventually defeated in a great battle, and compelled to abandon Agrigentum to its fate, b.c. 262. (Polyb. i. 18, 19; Diod. Exc. HoescM. xxiii. 8, 9 ; Zonar. viii. 10 ; Oros. 'iv. 7.) For this ill success Hanno was recalled .by the Carthaginian senate, and compelled to pay a fine of 6000 pieces of gold (Diod. Exc. Hoeschel. xxiii. 9): he was succeeded by Hamilcar, but six years afterwards (b. c. 256), we again find -him associated with that general in the command of the Carthaginian fleet at the great battle of Ecnomus. (Polyb. i. 27 ; Oros. iv. 8.) After that decisive defeat, Hanno is said to have been sent by Hamilcar, who appears to have held the chief command, to enter into negotiations with the



Roman generals; but failing in this, he sailed away at once, with the ships that still remained to him, to Carthage. (Dion Cass. Exc. Vat. 63; Zo­nar. viii. 12 ; Val. Max. vi. 6. § 2.) His name is not mentioned in the subsequent operations; but as two generals of the name of Hanno are spoken of as commanding the Carthaginian army which was defeated at Clupea in 255 by the consuls Aemilius Paullus and Fulvius Nobilior (Oros. iv. 9), it is not impossible that he was one of them.

9. Son of Hamilcar, one of the three ambassadors sent by the Carthaginians to Regulus, to sue for peace, after the defeat of their armies near Adis. (Diod. Exc. Vat. xxiii. 4.)

10. A Hanno is mentioned both by Zonaras (viii. 12) and Orosius (iv. 7) as commanding in Sardinia during the first Punic war. Orosius states that he succeeded Hannibal (the son of Gisco), but was defeated and killed by L. Scipio, probably in b. c. 259. The same story is told by Valerius Maximus (v. 1. ext. 2).

11. Commander of the Carthaginian fleet, which was defeated by Lutatius Catulus off the Aegates, B. c. 241. There are no means of determining whether he may not be the same with some one of those already mentioned ; but it is certainly a mis­take to confound him with the following [No. 12], which has been done by several authors. The particulars of the action off the Aegates are so fully given under the article catulus [No. 1], that it is unnecessary to repeat them here. Ac­cording to Zonaras (viii. 17), Hanno himself, with those ships which escaped destruction, fled directly to Carthage, where he met with the same fate that so often awaited their unsuccessful ge­nerals at the hands of the Carthaginians, and was crucified by order of the senate.

12. Surnamed the Great (o M^ay, Appian, Hisp. 4, Pun. 34, 49) apparently for his suc­cesses in Africa, was during many years the leader of the aristocratic party at Carthage, and, as such, the chief adversary of Hamilcar Barca and his sons. He is first mentioned as holding a command in Africa during the first Punic war, at which time he must have been quite a young man. We know very little of his proceedings there, except that he took Hecatompylus, a city said to have been both great and wealthy, but the situation of which is totally unknown. (Diod. Exc. Vales, xxiv. p. 565 ; Polyb. i. 73.) Nor do we know against what nations of Africa his arms were directed, or what was the occasion of the war, though it seems pro­bable that it arose out of the defection of the African cities from the Carthaginians during the expedition of Regulus. Whatever may have been the occasion of it, it appears that Hanno obtained so much distinction by his exploits in this war ais to be regarded as a rival to his contemporary, Ha­milcar Barca. According to Polybius, the favour with which Hanno was regarded by the govern­ment at home was due in part to the harshness and severity he displayed towards their African subjects, and to the rigour with which he exacted from these payment of the heavy taxes with which they were loaded. (Polyb. i 67, 72.) When the mercenaries that had been employed in Sicily, re­turned to Africa after the end of the first Punic war (b. c. 240), and were all assembled at Sicca, it was Hanno who was chosen to be the bearer to them of the preposition that they should abate

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