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§5, 2. § 1.) Hence he is called the infernal Zeus (Zeds KaraxOovios), or the king of the shades (ava£ ej>€p»i>, Horn. //. ix. 457,. xx. 61. xv. 187, &c.). As, however, the earth and Olympus be­longed to the three brothers in common, he might ascend Olympus, as he did at the time when he was wounded by Heracles. (II. v. 395 ; comp. Paus. vi. 25. § 3; Apollod. ii. 7. § 3 ; Find. 01. ix. 31.) But when Hades was in his own kingdom, he was quite unaware of what was going on either on earth or in Olympus (77. xx. 61, &c.), and it was only the oaths and curses of men that reached his ears, as they reached those of the Erinnyes. He possessed a helmet which rendered the wearer in­visible (II. v. 845), and later traditions stated that this helmet was given him as a present by the Cy­clopes after their deli very from Tartarus. (Apollod. i. 2. § 1.) Ancient story mentions both gods and men who were honoured by Hades with the tem­porary use of this helmet. (Apollod. i. 6. § 2, ii. 4. § 2.) His character is described as fierce and in­exorable, whence of all the gods he was most hated by mortals. (//. ix. 158.) He kept the gates of the lower world closed (whence he is called IIuAap-7-779, II. viii. 367; comp. Paus. v. 20. § 1.; Orph. Hymn. 17. 4), that no shade might be able to es­cape or return to the region of light. When mor­tals invoked him, they struck the earth with their hands (//. ix. 567), and the sacrifices which were offered to him and Persephone consisted of black male and female sheep, and the person who offered the sacrifice had to turn away his face. (Od. x. 527; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 380.)

The ensigu of his power was a staff, with which, like Hermes, he drove the shades into the lower world (Pind. Ol. ix. 35), where he had his palace and shared his throne with his consort Persephone. When he carried off Persephone from the upper world, he rode in a golden chariot drawn by four black immortal horses. (Orph>. Argon. 1192, Hymn. 17. 14; Ov. Met. v. 404 ; Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 19; Clatidian, ^apt. Proserp. i. in fin.) Besides these horses he was also believed to have herds of oxen in the lower world and in the island of Ery-theia, which were attended to by Menoetius. (Apol­lod. ii. 5, §§ 10, 12.) Like the other gods, he was not a faithful husband; the Furies are called his daughters (Serv. ad Aen. i. 86) ; the nymph Mintho, whom he loved, was metamorphosed by Persephone into the plant called mint (Strab. viii. p. 344; Ov. Met. x. 728), and the nymph Leuce, with whom he was likewise in love, was changed by him after her death into a white poplar, and transferred to Elysium. (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 61.) Being the king of the lower world, Pluton is the giver of all the blessings that come from the earth: he is the possessor and giver of all the metals contained in the earth, and hence his name Pluton. (Hes. Op. et Dies, 435 ; Aes-chyl. Prom. 805 ; Strab. iii. p. 147 ; Lucian, Tim. 21.) He bears several surnames referring to his ultimately assembling all mortals in his kingdom,, and bringing them to rest and peace; such as Poly-degmon, Polydectes, Clymenus, TIayKolTi)$9 &c. (Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 9 ; Aeschyl. Prom. 153; Soph. Antig. 811 ; Paus. ii. 35. § 7.) Hades was worshipped throughout Greece and Italy. In Elis he had a sacred enclosure and a temple, which was opened only once in every year (Pans. vi. 25. § 3) ; and we further know that he had temples, at Pylos Triphyliacus, near Mount Menthe, between Tralles.


and Nysa, at Athens in the grove of the Erinnyes, and at Olympia; (Strab. iii. p. 344, xiv. p. 649 ; Paus. i. 28. § 6, v. 20. § 1.) We possess few representations of this divinity, but in those which still exist, he resembles his brothers Zeus and Poseidon, except that his hair falls down his fore-head, and that the majesty of his appearance is dark and gloomy. His ordinary attributes are the key of Hades and Cerberus. (Hirt, Myihol. Bil-derb. i. p. 72, &c.)

In Homer Ai'des is invariably the name of the god ; but in later times it was transferred to his-house, his abode or kingdom, so that it became a name for the lower world itself. We cannot enter here into a description of the conceptions which the ancients formed of the lower world, for this discussion belongs to mythical geography. [L. S.]

HADRIANUS, P. AE'LIUS, the fourteenth in the series of Roman emperors, reigned from the llth of August, a. d. 117, till the 10th of July, a. d. 138. He was born at Rome on the 24th of January, a. d. 76 ; and not as Eutropius (viii. 6) and Eusebius (Chron. no. 2155, p. 166,ed. Scaliger) state, at Italica. This mistake arose from the fact, that Hadrian was descended, according to his own account, from a family of Hadria in Picenum, which, in the time of P. Scipio, had settled at Ita­lica in Spain. His father, Aelius Hadrianus Afer, was married to an aunt of the emperor Trajan ; he had been praetor, and lived as a senator at Rome. Hadrian lost his father at the age of ten, and re­ceived his kinsman Ulpius Trajanus (afterwards the emperor Trajan) and Caelius Attianus as his guardians. He was from his earliest age very fond of the Greek language and literature, which he ap­pears to have studied with zeal, while he neglected his mother tongue. At the age of fifteen he left Rome and went to Spain, where he entered upon his military career ; but he was soon called back, and obtained the office of decemvir stlitibus ; and about a. d. 95 that of military tribune, in which capacity he served in Lower Moesia. When Trajan was adopted by Nerva, a. d. 97, Hadrian hastened from Moesia to Lower Germany, to be the first to congratulate Trajan; and in the year following he again travelled on foot from Upper to Lower Ger­many, to inform Trajan of the demise of Nerva ; and this he did with such rapidity, that he arrived even before the express messengers sent by Servi-anus, who was married to his sister Paulina.; Trajan now became more and more attached to Hadrian, though the attachment did not continue undisturbed, until Trajan's wife, Plotina, who was fond of Hadrian, contrived to confirm the connexion by bringing about a marriage between her favourite and Julia Sabina, a grand-daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana. Henceforth Hadrian rose every day in the emperor's favour, for the preservation of which he did not always adopt the most honourable means. He was successively invested with various offices at Rome, such as the quaestorship in a. d. 101. In this capacity he delivered his first speech in the senate, but was laughed at on account of the rudeness and want of refinement in its delivery. This induced him to study more carefully his mother tongue and Latin oratory, which he had hitherto neglected. Soon after the expiration of his quaestorship he appears to have joined Trajan, who was then carrying on the war against the Dacians. In a. d. 105 he obtained the tribuneship of the people, and two years later the praetorship. In

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