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opposition to that advised by Hermocratesj and a speaker of the name of Nicolaus. Finally, Poly-aenus (i. 42) relates a doubtful tale of a device by which he persuaded the Syracusans to entrust him with the sole command. He induced them to adopt the resolution of attacking a particular position, secretly sent word to the enemy, who, in consequence, strengthened their force there, and then availed himself of the indignation at the betrayal of their counsels to prevail upon the people to leave the sole control of them to him.
For all that we know of the rest of the life of Gylippus we are indebted to Plutarch (Nic. 28; Lysand. 16, 17) and Diodorus (xiii. 106). He was commissioned, it appears, by Lysander, after the capture of Athens, to carry home the treasure •. By opening the seams of the sacks underneath, he abstracted a considerable portion, 30 talents, according to Plutarch's text; according to Diodorus, who makes the sum total of the talents of silver to be 1500, exclusive of other valuables, as much as 300. He was detected by the inventories which were contained in each .package, and which he had overlooked. A hint from one of his slaves indicated to the Ephors the place where the missing treasure lay concealed, the space under the tiling of the house. Gylippus appears to have at once gone into exile, and to have been condemned to death in his absence. Athenaeus (vi. p. 234.) says that he died of starvation, after being convicted by the Ephors of stealing part of Lysander's treasure; but whether he means that he so died by the sentence of the Ephors, or in exile, does not appear.
None can deny that Gylippus did the duty as signed to him in the Syracusan war with skill and energy. The favour of fortune was indeed most remarkably accorded to him ; yet his energy in the early proceedings was of a degree unusual with his countrymen. His military skill, perhaps, was not much above the average of the ordinary Spartan officer of the better kind. Of the nobler virtues of his country we cannot discern much: with its too common vice of cupidity he lamentably sullied his glory. Aelian (V. H. xii. 42 ; comp. Athen. vi. p. 271) says that he and Lysander, and Calli- cratidas, were all of the class called Mothaces, Helots, that is, by birth, who, in the company of the boys of the family to which they belonged, were brought up in the Spartan discipline* and afterwards obtained freedom. This can hardly have been the case with Gylippus himself,-as we find his father, Cleandridas, in an important situa tion at the side of king Pleistoanax: but the family may have been derived, at one point or another* from a Mothax. (Comp. Muller* Dor. iii. 3. § 5.) The syllable Tv\- in the name is probably identical with the Latin Gilvus. [A. H. €.]
GYLIS, GYLLIS, or GYLUS (Tv\ts9 NA-A*s,Tv\os), a Spartan, was Polemarch under Age-silaus at the battle of Coroneia, B. c. 394, against the hostile confederacy of Greek states. On the morning after the battle, Agesilatts* to see whether the enemy would renew the fight, ordered Gylis (as he himself had been severely wounded) to draw up the army in order of battle, with crowns of victory on their heads, and to erect a trophy to the sound of martial instruments. The Thebans, however, who alone were in a position to dispute the field, acknowledged their defeat by requesting leave to bury their dead. Soon after this, Agesi-la'us went to Delphi to dedicate to the god a tenth
of his Asiatic spoils, and left Gylis to invacle tlie territory of the Opuntian Locrians, who had been the occasion of the war in Greece. (Comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 5. § 3, &c.) Here the Lacedaemonians collected much booty ; but, as they were returning to their camp in the evening, the Locrians pressed on them with their darts, and slew many, among whom was Gylis himself. (Xen. Hell, iv* 3. § 21, 23, Ages. 2. § 15; Plut. Ages. 19 ; Paus. iii. 9.) The Gyllis who is mentioned in one of the epigrams of Damagetus has been identified by some with othryades, but on insufficient grounds. (Jacobs, Antkol. ii. 40, viii. Ill, 112.) [E. E.]
GYNAECOTHOENAS (rw/a</co0oUs), that is," the god feasted by Women," a surname of Ares at Tegea. In a war of the Tegeatans against the Lacedaemonian king Charillus, the women of Tegea made an attack upon the enemy from an ambus cade. This decided the victory. The women therefore celebrated the victory alone, and ex cluded the men from the sacrificial feast. This* it is saidj gave rise to the surname of Apollo. (Paus. viii. 48. § 3 ) [L. S.]
GYRTON (Ttprtiv), a brother of Phlegyas, who built the town of Gyrton on the Peneius, and from whom it received its name. (Steph. By/, s. v* rtiprow.) Others derived the name of that town from Gyrtone, who is called a daughter of Phle gyas. (Schol. ad Apollon. Khod. i. 57 ; comp. Muller, Orchom. p. 189, 2d edit.) [L. S.]
HABINNAS* a lapidary and monumenta\ sculptor, mentioned by Petronius. (Sat. 65, 71.) If he was a real person, he was a contemporary of Petronius, who is supposed to have lived in the first century of our era. (Studer, in JRhein. Mus. 1842, p. 50.) [P. S.]
HABITUS, CLUE'NTIUS. [clubntius.]
HABRON, a painter of second-rate merit, painted Friendship (Amiditia), Concord (Concordia), and likenesses of the gods. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. ll.s. 40. § 35.) His soil, Nessus, was a painter of some note. (Ibid. § 42.) [P. S.]
HADES or PLUTON (aAi5?/y, IIAoiW, or poetically *A?5r?s, 'Ai'S&rt'eife, and H\ovT€us)9 the god of the lower world; Plato (Cratyl. p. 403) observes that people preferred calling him Pluton (the giver of wealth) to pronouncing the dreaded name of Hades or Ai'des. Hence we find that in ordinary life and in the mysteries the name Pluton became generally established, while the poets preferred the ancient name Aides or the form Pluteus. The etymology of Hades is uncertain: some de^ rive it from a-tSeTjp, whence it would signify "the god who makes invisible," and others from SSu or x<*8a> ; so that Hades would mean " the all-em-bracer," or w all-receiver." The Roman poets use the names Dis, Orcus, and Tartarus as synonymous with Pluton, for the god of the lower world.
Hades is a son of Cronus and Rhea, and a brother of Zeus and Poseidon. He was married to Persephone, the daughter of Demeter. In the division of the world among the three brothers, Hades obtained " the darkness of night," the abode of the shades, over which he rules. (Apollod. i. 1.