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when, at the commencement of the service, the sun burst forth and filled the church with his light, all the orthodox accepted it as a sign from heaven, and called out to the emperor to make Gregory bishop of Constantinople. The cry was with difficulty appeased for the time, and shortly afterwards Gre­gory was compelled to accept the office. As the l/ead of the orthodox party, Gregory used their victory with a healing moderation, at least accord­ing to the ideas of his time, for the suppression of the public worship of the heretics by the edicts of Theodosius was not regarded by him as an act of persecution. On the other hand, many of the Arians regarded him with the deepest enmity, and he relates a romantic story of an assassin, who came with other visitors into his room, but was conscience-stricken, and confessed his guilt: Gre­gory dismissed him with his benediction. The affairs of the church were administered by him with diligence and integrity, and he paid no more court to the emperor than the etiquette of his rank required. Several of his sermons belong to the year of his patriarchate.

At the beginning of the year 381, T^heodosius convoked the celebrated council of Constantinople, the second of the oecumenical councils. One of its earliest acts was to confirm Gregory in the patri­archate of Constantinople, and soon after, in con­sequence of the sudden death of Meletius, he became president of the council. He soon found, however, that he had not the power to* rule it. Pie was too good and moderate, perhaps also too weak and indolent, to govern a general council in that age. His health also was very infirm. He gradually withdrew himself from the sittings of the council, and showed a disposition to lay down his bishopric. His chief opponents, the Egyptian and Macedonian bishops, seized the attack him, on the ground that he could not hold the bishopric of Constantinople, as he was already bishop of Na-zianzus, and the church did not permit translations. Upon this he gladly resigned his office. His re­signation was accepted without hesitation by the council and the emperor, and he took leave of the people of Constantinople in a discourse which is the noblest effort of his eloquence. He returned to Cappadocia, and, the course of his journey lead­ing him to Caesareia, he there delivered his ad­mirable funeral oration upon Basil. Finding the bishopric of Nazianzus still vacant, he discharged its duties until, in the following year, 383, he found a suitable successor in his cousin Eulalius. He now finally retired to his long-sought solitude, at his paternal estate at Arianzus, where the enjoy­ment of quiet philosophical meditation was mingled with the review of his past life, which he recorded in an Iambic poem. This work breathes a spirit of contentment, derived from an approving con­science, but not unmixed with complaints of the ingratitude and disappointment which he had en­countered in the discharge of duties he had never sought, and lamentations over the evil times on which he had fallen. He draws a melancholy picture of the character of the clergy of his time, derived chiefly from his experience of the council of Constantinople. He also wrote other poems, and several letters, in his retirement. He died in 389 or 390. After the account given of his life, little remains to be said of his character. His natural disposition partook of the two qualities, which are often found united, impetuosity and indolence.


The former was tempered by sincere and humble piety, and by a deep conviction of the benefits of moderation; the latter was aggravated by his notions of philosophic quietism, and by his con­ tinual encounters with difficulties above his strength. He was a perfectly honest man. His mind, though highly cultivated, was of no great power. His poems are not above mediocrity, and his discourses, though sometimes really eloquent, are generally nothing more than favourable specimens of the rhetoric of the schools. He is more earnest than Chrysostom, but not so ornamental. He is more artificial, but also, in spirit, more attractive, than Basil. Biblical theology has gained but little from either of these writers, whose chief aim was to explain and enforce the dogmas of the Catholic church. ;

The works of Gregory Nazianzeri are, 1. Ora­tions or Sermons ; 2. Letters ; 3. Poems ; 4. His Will.

The following are the most important editions of the works of Gregory Nazianzen:—An editio prin+ ceps, Basil. 1550, folio, containing the Greek text, and the lives of Gregory by Suidas, Sophronius, and Gregory the presbyter. A Latin version was published at the same place and time, in a separate volume. 2. Morell's edition, after the text of Billius, 2 vols. fol. Paris. 1609—1611; a new and improved edition, 1630; a careless reprint, Colon. (Lips.), 1690. 3. Another edition, after Billius, by Tollius and Muratorius, Venet. 1753. 4. The Benedictine edition, of which only the first volume was published: it was commenced by Louvart, continued by Maron, and finished by Clemencet. It contains only the. discourses, preceded by an excellent life of Gregory, Paris. 1778. The dis­ courses are placed in a new order by Clemencet. The numbers used in this article are those of Bil­ lius. The edition of Billius only contains a part of Gregory's poems. The principal edition of the remainder is by Tollius, under the title of Car- mina Cygnea, in his Insignia Itinerarii Jtalici, Traj. ad Rhen. 1696, 4to., reprinted, 1709; Muratori further discovered several of Gregory's epigrams, which he published in his Anecdota Graeca, Patav. 1709, 4to. These epigrams form a part of the Palatine Anthology, and are published more accurately in Jacobs's edition of the Palatine Anthology, b. viii. vol. i. pp. 539—604; and in Boissonade's Poet. Graec. Sylloge, Paris, 1824, &c. There are many other editions of parts of his works. (The authorities for Gregory's life, besides those already quoted, are the lives of .him by Nicetas and by Gregory the presbyter, the Eccle­ siastical Histories of Socrates and Sozomen, the works of Baronius, Tillemont, Fleury, Du Pin, Lardner, Le Clerc ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 246 ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. viii. p. 383; Schrockh, Chrisiliche Kirchengeschichte^ vol. xiii. p. 268 ; Ull- mann, Gregorius von Nazianz, der Theologe, em Beitrag zur Kircfien . und Dogmengeschichte des vierten Jahrhunderts, Darmst. 1825, 8vo.; Hoff- mann, Lexicon Bibliograpliicum Scriptorum Grae- corum.) [P. S.]

GREGORIUS NYSSENUS, ST., bishop of Nyssa, in Cappadocia, and a father of the Greek church, was the younger brother of Basil the Great. He was born at Caesareia, in Cappadocia, in or soon after a. d. 331. Though we .have no express account of his education, there is no doubt thsit, like his brother's, it was- the best that the Roman

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