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with a Latin translation and an index, which, however, contains only the first eleven books. Wolf was persuaded to undertake the task by Dernschwam, a German scholar, who had travelled in the East, where he obtained a MS. of the work. Wolf obtained another MS. in Germany, and was enabled to publish the work by the liberality of the celebrated patron of learning and arts, Count Anthony Fugger. He published this work, to­gether with the Paralipomena of Nicetas, and the Turkish history of Laonicus Chalcocondylas, with a Latin translation by Konrad Clauser. The same edition was reprinted in the Historiae Byzantinae Descriptors Tres, Geneva, 1615, fol. The MSS. perused by Wolf had many considerable lacunae, or passages that could not be deciphered. The corresponding text was afterwards found in other MSS by Petavius, who published them, together with the Breviarium of Nicephorus the Patriarch, Paris, 1616, 8vo. The Paris edition was edited by Boivin, two volumes, 1702, fol. The first vol. is a carefully revised reprint of Wolf's edition, containing the first eleven books ; the second vol. contains the following thirteen books, with a Latin translation by the editor, except books 23 and. 24, which were translated by Claudius Copperonerius ; it contains also the excellent notes of Du Cange to the first seventeen books. Boivin deserves great credit for this edition. He intended to add a third volume; containing the remaining fourteen books, and a fourth volume with commentaries, &c., but neither of them was' published. The Venice edition, 1729, fpl., is a careless reprint of the Paris edition. The Bonn edition, by Schopen, 1829-30, 2 vols. 8vo., is a careful and revised re­print of the Paris edition. It is to be regretted that the learned editor of this edition has not thought it advisable to publish the remaining four­teen books also, the materials of which he would have found in very excellent condition in Paris.

The other printed works of Gregoras are— Oratio in ObitumTheodori Metqchitae (Gr. Lat.),in TJieodori Metochitae (that is, Michael Glycas [GLY- cas]) Historia Romany ed. Joh. Meursius, Ley- den, 1618, 8vo. ; Commentarii sive Scholia in Sy- nesium De Insomniis^ in the Paris edition of Syne- sius, 1553, fol.; Vita, Sancti Codrati et Sociorum Martyrum, interprete Reinoldo Dehnio, in the second vol. of Ada Sanctorum; Paschalium Cor- rectum^ T^ StopOwdev iraff^oXiov i/tto njkt^^ov (f)i\o(r6(f)ov rov rprjyopa, trspl o§ Kal 6 "Apyvpos ev rfj fadeiffr) /*e0o5<w 8iaAaju§ai/€i, in Petavius, Ura- nologium, and in the third volume of the same author's Doctrina Temporum, the celebrated - work mentioned above; Epistola ad Theodulum Mona- chum, in Normann's edition of Theodulus, Upsala, 1693, 4to. (Dissert, de Nicephoro Gregora, in Oudin, Commentarii de Script. Eccles., vol. iii. p. 768, &c.; Boivin, Vita Nic. Greg.^ in the Paris and Bonn editions of Gregoras, Hist. By». ; Cave, Hist. Lit.., Appendix, p. 45 ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vii. p. 633, &c.; Hankius, De Byz. Rer. Script.?. 579, &c.) [W. P.J

GREGORIANUS, the compiler of the Grego-rianus Codex. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. Codex Gregoria­nus.) Nothing is known of him, and even his name is uncertain, for the title Corpus Gregorian^ which appears in some manuscripts of the remains of his code, and in the Consultatio veteris Icti, may be written short, in place of Corpus Gregoriani Codicis. The word codex may also perhaps be supplied in


the Collatio Juris Rom. et Mos. xv. 3, and xv. 4, where we find Gregorianus Libro VII. and Gre­gorianus Libro V. The ellipsis of codex after the word Theodosianus is not unusual, and the scholiast on the Basilica, lib. ii. tit. 2. s. 35 (vol. i. p. 704, ed. Heimbach), speaks of ras lv r$ 'Epuoyeviav^ Kal Tprjyopiavcp Siardj-eis, However, the interpretatio of Cod. Theod. i. tit. 4. s. un. has the following passage:—" Ex his omnibus Juris Consultoribus, ex Gregoriano, Hermogeniano, Gaio, Papiniano et Paulo, quae necessaria causis praesentium temporum videbantur, elegimus." In this place codice cannot fairly be subaudited, and therefore, so far as the authority of the Westgothic interpreter goes, the longer name Gregorianus must be preferred to Gregorius. (Zimmern. R. R. G. vol. i. § 46. n. 35.) Burchardi (Lehrbuch desRom. Rechts, vol. i. p. 233, Stuttgart. 1841), nevertheless, prefers the shorter form, Gregorius, and thinks that the compiler of the codex may have been the Gregorius to whom was addressed, in a. d. 290, a rescript of the em­peror Diocletian (Cod. Just. i. tit. 22. s. 1), and may also have been identical with the Gregorius who was praefectus praetorio under Constantine in a. d. 336 and 337. (Cod. Theod. 3. tit. 1. s. 2, Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 1. s. 3, Cod. Just. 5. tit. 27- s. 1, Nov. 89. c, 15.) This hypothesis is consistent with the date at which the Gregorianus Codex may be supposed to have been compiled, for the latest con­stitution it contains is one of Diocletian and Max-iminian of the year a. d. 295.

In the ninth volume of Savigny's Zeitschrift9 p. 235—-300, Klenze published, for the first time, from a manuscript of the Breviarium Alaricianum at Berlin, a work consisting of about fifty legal fragments, which he supposed to be entitled In- stitutio Gregoriani. Its author and purpose are unknown. It contains extracts not only from the Gregorian Code, but from the Theodosian Code, from the Sententiae of Paulus, and from t\\eResponsa of Papinian. It is later in date than the Breviarium. Klenze thought that it was an independent Lex Romana^ intended to be the law of the Romani in some Germanic kingdom, but this opinion seems to have been successfully controverted by G. Hanel in Richter's Krit. Jahrb. fur Deutsche Recktswiss. p. 587—603, Lips. 1838. Booking, Institutionen, vol. i. p. 93, n. 17. [J. T. G.]

GREGORIUS (rWo'fnos). Historical.

1. Praefectus Praetorio, apparently in Italy, having Africa also subject to him, near the close of the reign of Constantine the Great, a. d. 336 and 337. The heresiarch Donatus wrote to him a most insolent letter, calling him " the stain of the senate,*" " the disgrace of the prefects," and similar names; to which abuse Gregory replied " with the patience of a bishop." (Optatus, De Schismate Donatist, iii. 3. ed. Dupin; Cod. Tfaodos. 11. tit. 1. s. 3 ; 3. tit. 1. s. 2, with the note of Gothofredus ; Gothofred. Prosopog. Cod. T/ieodos.)

2. Praefectus Annonae under Gratian, a. d. 377. Gothofred is disposed to identify him with the Gregory to whom Symmachus wrote several of his letters, and who had borne the office of quaestor. (Cod. Theod.: 14.; tit. 3. s. 15 ; Gothofred. Pro­sopog, Cod. Theodos.; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp, vol. v. p. 147.)

3. Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum under Gra­tian, a. d. 383. His prefecture extended over all the provinces (Gaul, Spain, and Britain) which remained under the immediate government of

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