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hood of Minturnae, escaped to the island of Aena-ria, on the coast of Campania, a.nd afterwards accompanied him to Africa. (Plut. Mar. 35, 37, 40 ; App B. C. i. 60, 62.)

4. C. granius, a dramatic poet whose date and history are unknown. From Nonius (s. v. Cardo) he appears to have been the author of a tragedy called " Peliades." (Bothe, Poet. Sc. Laf. Fragm. vol. v. p. 271.)

5. granius, decurio of Puteoli in b. c. 78. A tax had been imposed on the Italian cities for the restoration of the Capitol at Rome, which had been burnt down during the civil war between Marius and Sulla, b.c. 83. Granius, in anticipation of Sulla's death, which was daily expected, kept back the levy on his muhicipium. .Sulla, highly in­censed at the delay, since he had set his heart on dedicating the Capitol, and inscribing it with his name, summoned Granius to his house at Cumae, and caused him to be strangled in his presence. (Plut. SulL 37 ; Val. Max. ix; 3. § 8.)

6. P. granius, a merchant of Puteoli, engaged in the Sicilian trade, who appeared in evidence against C. Verres, b. c. 70. (Cic. in Verr. v. 59.)

7; A. granius, a native of Puteoli, of eques­trian rank at Rome, was killed among the Caesa-> rian officers nt Dyrrhachmm, in B. c. 48. (Caesar, #<7. in. 71.)

8. Q. granius, accused Calpurnius Piso in A. d. 24 of treasonable speeches against Tiberius, of keeping poison in his house, and of entering the senate with concealed weapons. Granius obtained a conviction of the accused. (Tac. Ann. iv. 21.) [W, B. D.]

GRAPTUS (rpccTn-o's), THEODO'RUS and THEO'PHANES, two ecclesiastical writers, com­memorated in the Greek church, in the office for the 27th Dec. as saints and confessors. They were the sons of pious parents, and natives of Je­rusalem. Theodore, who was some years older than his brother, was distinguished, when a boy, by the .seriousness of'his deportment and the excellence of his character. He was educated in the monastery of St. Saba, near Jerusalem, and, according to his biographer, received ordination from the bishop of Sion, that is, as we understand it, the patriarch of Jerusalem. Theophanes is said to have emulated the devotion of his brother, but we have no ac­count of his education or ordination. The icono­clastic controversy was raging, and the brothers were sent by the patriarch of Jerusalem to remon­strate with the emperor Leo V., the Armenian, a zealous iconoclast, who reigned from A. D. 813 to 820. The accomplishments and boldness of Theo­dore excited the emperor's admiration, but the per­tinacious resistance of the brothers to his proceed­ings provoked his anger, and they were scourged, and banished from Constantinople. After the murder of Leo V., they were at first allowed by .Michael II. the Stammerer (who reigned from a.d. 8:20 to 829) to return to that city, but were shortly .afterwards again banished. Under Theophilus, the son of Michael (who reigned from a. d. 829 to 842), they were still more severely treated. In .addition to a third banishment from Constantinople, or rather imprisonment (we do not fine! when they had returned from their second exile), they had a long inscription of opprobrious iambic verses carved <>n their faces; the verses are given by the author of the life of Theodore, as well as by the continuator .of Theophanes,by Symeon Magister,by George the


Monk, and by Cedrenus. From this punishment they received the surname of Grapti (Tpairroi)^ " In­scribed." Their place of exile was Apameia, in Bithynia, on the shore of the Propontis, according to the biographer of Theodore, or the harbour of Carta, according to Symeon Magister. Here the exiles, or rather prisoners, were enabled, by means of a faithful fisherman, to communicate, with Me­thodius, afterwards patriarch of Constantinople, who was. shut up in a sepulchre near the place of their confinement. Theodore died in; exile ; but Theophanes survived, and, on the restoration of images under the empress Theodora, widow of Theophilus, and guardian of her son, Michael III., became archbishop of Nicaea, in Bithynia. Of the death of .Theophanes we have no account. The. continuator of Theophanes calls Theophanes Graptus bishop of Smyrna; and he and Cedrenus make. Theodore to have survived until the admi­nistration of the empress Theodora: but these statements are at variance with better authorities.

Theodore wrote, 1. A Letter to Joannes., Bishop of GyzicuS) giving an account of his own and his brother's sufferings. This letter is incorporated in the life of Theodore referred to below. 2. Bi'os-NiK7](p6pov rov dyiordrov Harpidpxov Kwvara.v-Tti/ou7roAe«s; The Life of Nicephorus, Patriarch of Constantinople. The whole of this appears to be extant in M,S.; and an extract from it, giving an account of the patriarch's disputation with Leo the Armenian, is printed by Combefis, in his Originum Rerumque CPolitanarum Manipulus. 3. 'firep ttjs dfJLw/JLi^Tou T&V XpiffTiavwv irlffT€ws9 De incul-pata Christianorum fide, of which also Combefis gives an extract. 4. Oratio in Dormientibus, of which some extracts, preserved in the Synopsis Dogmatum of Gregorius Hieromonachus, are quoted by Allatius in his De Purgatorio, p. 211.

Theophanes Graptus is chiefly known as a Me- lodus, or hymn writer. His known works are, 1. A Kavcov, Canon, or Hymn, in commemoration of his brother Theodore, embodied in the Menaea of the Greek church in the service for the 27th Dec., the day on which the Grapti are honoured. It is given by Combefis as above. 2. Canon Epinicius sive Victorialis, employed in the matin service of the Greek church for the first Sunday in Lent; it is given, with a Latin versionr by Baronius, An- nales ad Ann. 842, No. xxviii. These hymns, though not in verse, are acrostich, the first letters of the successive paragraphs forming a sentence, which serves as a motto to the piece. 3. Canon Paracleticus ad B. Deipatram^ mentioned by Fa- bricius. ( Vita Theodori Grapti^ by a contemporary writer, printed in the Orig. Rerumque CPolit. Manip. of Combefis ; Theophanes Continuatus, iii. De Tlieophilo Michaelis Fil. 14, iv. ; De Michaele Theophili Fil. 11,; Symeon Mag. De Theophil. c. 22, 23, De MicJiaele et Theodora, c. 5 ; Georg. Monach. De Theophilo, c. 25 ; Gedrenus, vol.i. p. 799, vol. ii. pp. 114—117, 149, 150, ed. Bonn.; Fabric. Bill. Gr. vol. viii. p. 84, vol. x. pp. 332, 395, vol. xi. pp. 84, 220, 718.) [J. C. M.]


GRATA. 1. Daughter of the emperor Valen-tinian I. by his second wife, Justina, whom he married, according to Theophanes, a. d. 368. She remained all her life unmarried. She and her sister, Justa, were at Mediolanum or Milan, while the remains of her murdered brother, Valentinian II., continued there unburied, and deeply la-

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