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Stosch, Pierres gravies, tab. 23; .Bracci, tab. 49.) [P. S.]
GNATHAENA (lW0a»/a), a celebrated Greek hetaera, of whom some witty sayings are recorded by Athenaeus (xiii. p. 585). She wrote a v6fios avffcrtTiKos, in the same fashion as vo\loi were com monly written by philosophers. It consisted of 323 fines, and was incorporated by Callimachus in his 7i7ra| t&v v6fji<t)v. [L. S.]
GNESIPPUS (Tvrio-nrifos), the son of Cleoma- chus, a Dorian lyric poet, according to Meineke, whose light and licentious love verses were attacked by Chionides, Cratinus, and Eupolis. The pas sages quoted by Athenaeus seem, however, to bear out fully the opinion of Welcker, that Gnesippus was a tragic poet, and that the description of his poetry given by Athenaeus (Tratyviaypd^ov rrjs i\apo,s /uovffys) refers to his choral odes. (Athen. xiv. p. 638, d. e.; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 7, 27—29 ; Welcker, die Griech. Trag. vol. iii. pp, 1024—1029.) [P. S.]
GNIPHO, M. ANTO'NIUS, a distinguished Roman rhetorician, who lived in the last century before the Christian aera. He was born in b. c. 114, and was a native of Gaul, but studied at Alex andria. He was a man of great talent and extra ordinary memory, and was thoroughly acquainted with Greek as well as Roman literature, and he is further praised as a person of a kind and generous disposition. After his return from Alexandria, he taught rhetoric at first in the house of J. Caesar, who was then a boy, and afterwards set up a school in his own house. He gave instruction in rhetoric every day, but declaimed only on the nundines. Many men of eminence are said to have attended his lectures, and among them Cicero, when he was praetor. He died in his fiftieth year, and left be hind him many works, though Ateius Capito main tained that the only work written by him was De Latino Sermone, in two books, and that the other treatises bearing his name were productions of his disciples. (Suet. De Illustr. Gram. 7 ; Ma- crob. Sat. iii. 12.) Schutz, in his preface to the Rhetorica ad Herennium (p. 23, &c.), endeavours to show that that work is the production of M. Antonius Gnipho ; but this is only a very uncertain hypothesis. [cicero, p. 727.] [L. S.]
GNOSIDICUS (TfualSiKos), the fourteenth in descent from Aesculapius, the elder son of Nebrus, the brother of Chrysus, and the father of Hippo crates I., Podalirius II., and Aeneius. He lived probably in the sixth century B. c. (Jo. Tzetzes, Chil. vii. Hist. 155, in Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xii. p. 680, edi Vet. ; Poeti Epist. ad Artauc. in Hip- pocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 770.) [W. A. G.]
2. A noble Persian, one of the seven conspirators against Smerdis the Magian. When the attack was made, and Smerdis fled to his chamber, he was pursued by Dareius and Gobryas. In the darkness of the room Dareius was afraid to strike at the Magian, lest he should kill Gobryas ; but Gobryas perceiving his hesitation, exclaimed, " Drive your sword through both of us." Dareius struck, and fortunately pierced only the Magian. (Herod, iii. 70, 73, 78 ; Plut. Op&r. vol. ii. p. 50, e., and Wyttenbach's Note ; Justin. i. 9 ; Val. Max, iii.
2, ext.:§ 2; Aristeid. vol. i. p. 502, vol. ii. p. 236.) Gobryas accompanied Dareius into Scythia, and discovered the true meaning of the symbolical defiance of the Scythians. (Herod, iv. 132, 134.) He was doubly related to Dareius by marriage: Dareius married the daughter of Gobryas, and Gobryas married the sister of Dareius ; and one of his children by her was Mardonius. (Herod, vii. 2, 5.)
GONGYLUS (YoyytXos). 1. Of Eretria, was the agent by whose means Pausanias entered into communication with Xerxes, b. c. 477. To his charge Pausanias entrusted Byzantium after its recapture, and the Persian prisoners who were there taken, and who, by his agency, were now allowed to escape, and- (apparently in their company) he also himself went to Xerxes, taking with him the remarkable letter from Pausanias, in which he proposed to put the Persian king in possession of Sparta and all Greece, in return for marriage with his daughter. (Thuc. i. 129 j Diod. xi. 44 ; Nepos, Paiis. 2.)
Xenophon, on his arrival in Mysia with the Cyrean soldiers (b. c. 399), found Hellas, the widow of this Gongylus, living at Pergamus. She entertained him, and, by her direction, he attacked the castle of Asidates, a neighbouring Persian noble. She had borne her husband two sons, Gor-gion, and another Gongylus, the latter of whom, on finding Xenophon endangered in his attempt, went out, against his mother's will, to the rescue, accompanied by Procles, the descendant of Demaratus. (Xen. Anab. vii. 8. §§ 8, 17.) These two sons, it further appears (Xen. Hell. iii. 1. § 6), were in possession of Gambrium and Palaegambrium, My-rina and Grynium, towns given by the king to their father in reward for his treachery. On Thibron's arrival with the Lacedaemonian forces, and the incorporation, shortly after the above occurrence, of the Cyrean troops with them, they, with Eurysthenes and Procles, placed their towns in his hands, and joined the Greek cause.
2. A Corinthian captain, who in the eighteenth year of the Peloponnesian war, b. c. 414, took charge of a single ship of reinforcements for Syra cuse. He left Leucas after Gylippus, but, sailing direct for Syracuse itself, arrived there first. It was a critical juncture : the besieged were on the point of holding an assembly for discussion of terms of surrender. His arrival, and his news of the approach of Gylippus, put a stop to all thought of this ; the Syracusans took heart, and presently moved out to support the advance of their future deliverer. Thucydides seems to regard this as the moment of the turn of the tide. On the safe arrival of Gongylus at that especial crisis depended the issue of the Sicilian .expedition, and with it the destiny of Syracuse, Athens, and all Greece. Gon gylus fell, says Plutarch, in the first battle on Epi- polae, after the arrival of Gylippus. (Thuc. vii. 2; P\ut.Nicias9}9.) [A. H. C.]
GORDIANUS, the name of three Roman emperors, father, son, and grandson.