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CISCO.

2. Son of Hanno, and probably the father of Hamilcar, the adversary of Agathocles. He is mentioned by Diodorus (xvi. 81) as being in exile at the time of the great defeat sustained by the Carthaginians at the river Crimissus (b. c. 339). According to Polyaenus he had been banished, as implicated in the designs of his brother Hamilcar to possess himself of the sovereign power (Polyaen. v. 11, see also Justin. xxii. 7) ; but it appears that he had previously distinguished himself, both by his courage and skill as a general, and after the disaster just alluded to the Carthaginians thought fit to recal him from exile, and send him, at the Jiead of a fresh army of mercenaries, to restore their affairs in Sicily. But though he succeeded in cutting off two bodies of mercenary troops, in the service of Syracuse, he was unable to prevent the destruction of Mamercus of Catana, and Hice-tas of Leontini, the two chief allies of the Car­thaginians ; and shortly afterwards the ambassa­dors who had been sent from Carthage succeeded in concluding a treaty with Timoleon, by which the river Halycus •vyas fixed as the boundary of the contending powers (b. c. 338). After this victory we hear no more of Gisco. (Plut. Timol. 30—34 ; Diod. xvi. 81, 82 ; Justin. xxii. 3, 7.)

3. Commander of the Carthaginian garrison at Lilybaeum, at the end of the first Punic war. (Po­lyb. i. 66.) It appears that he must have succeeded Himilco in this command, but at what period we are not informed. After the conclusion of peace (b. c. 241), Hamilcar Barca having brought down his troops from Eryx to Lilybaeum, re­signed his command in disgust, and left to Gisco the charge of conducting them from thence to Car­thage. The latter prudently sent them over to Africa in separate detachments, in order that they might be paid off and disbanded severally ; but the Carthaginian government, instead of following this wise course, waited till the whole body were reunited in Africa, and then endeavoured to induce them to compromise the amount due to them for arrears. The consequence was, the breaking out of a general mutiny among them, which ultimately led to the sanguinary civil war known by the name of the Inexpiable. The mutinous troops, to the number of 20,000, having occupied the city of Tunis, only twelve miles from Carthage, Gisco, who during his command in Sicily had made him­self highly popular with the army, was deputed to them, with fuU powers to satisfy all their demands. But this concession came too late. Those who had taken the lead in the meeting, apprehensive of being given up to vengeance, should any com­position be effected, now exerted all their endea­vours to inflame the minds of the soldiery, and urge them to the most unreasonable demands. Spendius and Matho, two of the most active of the ringleaders, had been appointed generals, and it was at their instigation that the troops, exasper­ated by an imprudent reply of Gisco to some of their demands, fell upon that general, seized the treasures that, he had brought with him, and threw him and his companions into prison. (Polyb. i. 66—70.) J?rom this time the mercenaries, who were joined by almost all the native Africans sub­ject to Carthage, waged open war against that city. Gisco and his fellow-prisoners remained in captivity for some time, until Spendius and Matho, alarmed at the successes of Hamilcar Barca, and apprehensive of the effects which the lenity he had

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shown towards his prisoners might produce among their folloAvers, determined to cut them off from all hopes of pardon by involving them in the guilt of an atrocious cruelty. For this purpose they held a general assembly of their forces, in which, after alarming them by rumours of treachery, and exas­perating them by inflammatory harangues, they induced them to decree, on the proposal of the Gaul Autaritus, that all the Carthaginian prisoners should be put to death. The sentence was imme­diately executed in the most cruel manner upon Gisco and his fellow-captives, seven hundred in number. (Polyb. i. 79, 80.)

4. Father of Hasdrubal, who was general in Spain, together with Hasdrubal and Mago, the two sons of Hamilcar Barca. (Liv. xxiv. 41 ; Polyb. ix.. 11.) It is not improbable that this Gisco may be the same with the preceding one. Livy also calls the Hamilcar who was governor of Malta at the beginning of the second Punic war, son of Gisco (Liv. xxi. 51); but whether this refera to the same person we have no means of ascei-taining.

5. An officer in the service of Hannibal, of whom a story is told by Plutarch (Fab. Max. 15), that having accompanied his general to reconnoitre the enemy's army just before the battle of Cannae, Gisco expressed his astonishment at their numbers. To which Hannibal replied : " There is one thing yet more astonishing—that in all that number of men there is not one named Gisco."

6. One of the three ambassadors sent by Han­nibal to Philip, king of Macedonia, in b. c. 215, who fell into the hands of the Romans. (Liv. xxiii. 34.) He may perhaps be the same with the preceding.

7. A Carthaginian who came forward in the assembly of the people to harangue against the conditions of peace proposed by Scipio, after the battle of Zama, b. c. 202. Hannibal, who knew that all was lost, and that it was-useless to object to the terms offered, when there were no means of obtaining better, forcibly interrupted him, and dragged him down from the elevated position he had occupied to address the assembly ; an act which he afterwards excused, by saying, that he had been so long employed in war, he had forgotten the usages of peaceful assemblies. (Liv. xxx. 37.) The same circumstance is related by Polybius (xv. 19), but without mentioning the. name of the speaker.

8. Son of Hamilcar (which of the many persons of that name we know not) was ^one of the chief magistrates at Carthage at the time of the disputes which led to the third Punic war. Ambassadors having been sent from Rome to adjust the differ­ences between the Carthaginians and Masinissa (b. c. 152), the senate of Carthage was disposed to submit to their dictation ; but Gisco, by his violent harangues, so inflamed the minds of his hearers against the Romans, that the ambassadors even became apprehensive for their personal safety, and fled from the city. (Liv. Epit. xlviii.)

9. Surnamed Strytanus, one of the ambassadors sent from Carthage to Rome, with offers of sub­ mission, in order to avert the third Punic war, b.c. 149. (Polyb. xxxvi. 1.) [E. H. B.]

GITIADAS (rmaSas), a-Lacedaemonian ar­chitect, statuary, and poet. He completed the-temple of Athena Poliouchos at Sparta, and orna­mented it with works in bronze, from which it was

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