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space reserved for the priests of Apollo, that his statue in ivory should be carried in procession at the opening of the games of the Circus, and that the flamines and augurs who succeeded him should be taken from the Julia gens. A public tomb was built for him at Antioch. A triumphal arch was erected in his honour, on Mount Amanus, in Syria, with an inscription recounting his achievements, and stating that he had died for his country; and other monuments to his memory were constructed at Rome, and on the banks of the Rhine. The original grief broke out afresh when Agrippina arrived in Italy with his ashes, which were de­posited in the tomb of Augustus. But the Roman people were dissatisfied with the stinted obsequies with which, on this occasion, the ceremony was conducted by desire of Tiberius. (Tac. Ann. ii. 83, iii. 1—6.)

By Agrippina he had nine children, three of whom died young, while the others survived him. (Stemma Drusorum, vol. i. p. 1077 ; Suet. Cat. 7.) Of those who survived, the most notorious were the emperor Caius Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero.

He was an author of some repute, and not only an orator but a poet. (Suet. Gal. 3; Ov. Fast. i. 21, 25, Ex Pont. ii. 5, 41, 53, iv. 8, 68 ; Plin. H.N. viii. 42.) Of the Greek comedies (mentioned by Suetonius) which he composed, we have no fragments left, but the remains of his Latin trans­lation of the Phaenomena of Aratus evince consider­able skill in versification, and are superior in merit to the similar work of Cicero. By some critics the Authorship of this work has been, without sufficient cause, denied to Germanicus. (Barth. Advers. x. 21.) The early scholia appended to this trans­lation have been attributed, without any certainty, now to Fulgentius, and now to Caesius or Cal" pulnius Bassus. They contain a citation from Prudentius. We have also fragments of his Dio-semtia or Prognostica^ a physical poem, compiled from Greek sources. Of the epigrams ascribed to him, that on the Thracian boy (Mattaire, Corpus Poetarum, ii. 1547) has been much admired, but it is an example of a frigid conceit. (Burmann. An-thol. Lot. ii. 103, v. 41 ; Brunck. Analeci. vol. ii. p. 285.) The remains of Germanicus were first printed at Bononia, fol. 1474, then at Venice, fol. 1488 and 1499, in aedibus Aldi. A very good edition was published .by the well-known Hugo Grotius, when he was quite a youth, with plates of the constellations, to illustrate the phaenomena of Aratus, 4to, Leyden, 1600. There are also editions in the Carmina Familiae Caesareae, by Schwarz, 8 vo. Coburg, 1715, and by C. F. Schmid, 8vo. Lune-burg, 1728. The latest edition is that of J. C. Orelli, at the end of his Phaedrus, 8vo. Zurich, 1831.

The eventful life and tragic death of Germanicus, embellished by the picturesque narrative of Tacitus, have rendered him a favourite hero of the stage. There is an English play, with the title " Germani­cus, a tragedy, by a Gentleman of the University of Oxford," 8vo. London, 1775. Germanicus also gives name to several French tragedies—one by Bursault, which was highly prized by Corneille, a second by the Jesuit Dominique de Colonia, a third by Pradon, which was the subject of an epigram by Racine, and a fourth, published by A. V. Arnault in 1816^ which occasioned some sensation on its first representation, and was translated into Eng­lish by George Bernel. (Louis de Beaufort, His-


toire de Caesar Germanicus, 12mo. Leyden, 3.741 ; Caesar Germanicus^ ein Historisches Gemalde^ 8vo. Stendal, 1796; F. Hoffmann, Die vier Feldzuge des Germanicus in Deutschland, 4to. Getting. 1816 ; Niebuhr, Led. on the Hist, of Rom. vol. ii. Lect. 6L) [J. T. G.J


GERMANUS. 1. One of the commanders of the expedition sent by the emperor Theodosius II., a. d. 441, to attack the Vandals in Africa. (Pros­per. A quit. Ghron.)

2. The patrician, a nephew of the emperor Jus­tinian I. He was grown up at the time of Justi­nian's accession (a. d. 527)» for soon after that he was appointed commander of the troops in Thrace, and almost annihilated a body of Antae, a Slavonic nation who had invaded that province. He was sent into Africa on occasion of the mutiny of the troops there under Tzotzas, after the re­covery of that province from the Vandals by Beli-sarius, who had been called away into Sicily by the mutinous temper of the army in that island. Germanus was accompanied by Domnicus, or Domnichus, and Symniachus, men of skill, who were sent with him apparently as his advisers. On his arrival -at Carthage (a. d. 534) he found that two thirds of the army were with the rebel Tzotzas (T£"oT$*as, as Theophanes writes the name ; in Procopius it is Stotzas, 2rJr^"as), and that the remainder were in a very dissatisfied state. By his mildness, he assuaged the discontent of his troops ; and on the approach of Tzotzas, marched out, drove him away, and overtaking him in his retreat, gave him so decisive a defeat at KaAAas Barapas, i. e. Scalas Veteres, in Numidia, as to put an end to the revolt, and to compel Tzotzas to flee into Mauritania. A second attempt at mutiny was made at Carthage by Maximus ; but it was repressed by Germanus, who punished Maximus by crucifying or impaling him at Carthage. Ger­manus was shortly after (about a. d. 539 or 540) recalled by Justinian to Constantinople. Imme­diately after his return from Africa he was sent to defend Syria against Chosroes, or Khosru I., king of Persia ; but his forces were inadequate for that purpose, and, after leaving a portion of his troops to garrison Antioch, which was, however, taken by Chosroes (a. d. 539 or 540), he withdrew into Cilicia. After this Germanus remained for some time without any prominent employment. Either his ill success in Syria involved him in disgrace, or he was kept back by the hatred of the empress Theodora, the fear of whose displeasure prevented any of the greater Byzantine nobles from inter­marrying with the children which Germanus had by his wife Passara (Tiaffffdpa) ; and he was ob­liged (a. d. 545) to negotiate a match between his daughter, who was now marriageable, and Joannes, nephew of Vitalian the Goth, though Joannes

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