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the forces under his command, on whose attach ment he deemed that he could rely, and entered into an alliance with Acoris, king of Egypt, and with the Lacedaemonians, who gladly embraced the opportunity to renew hostilities against Persia. But in the midst of his preparations, Gaos was cut off by secret assassination. (Diod. xv. 3, 9, 18.) It is undoubtedly the same person who is called by Polyaenus (vii. 20) Glos (FAcSs), whom that author mentions as carrying on war in Cyprus. There is some doubt, indeed, which is the more correct form of the name. (See Casaubon, ad Polyaen. I. c.; Wesseling, ad Diod. xv. 3.) [E. H. B.]
GARANUS, a shepherd of gigantic bodily strength, who is said to have come from Greece into Italy in the reign of Evander, and slew Cacus. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 203.) Aurelius Victor (0rig. Gent. Rom. 6) calls him Recaranus, but both writers agree in identifying him with the Greek Heracles. [L. S.]
C. GARGO'NIUS, a Roman eques, whom Cicero calls an unlearned rabulist, but a very fluent and shrewd speaker. (Brut. 48). A different person of the same name is ridiculed by Horace. (Sat. i. 2. 27,4. 92.) It must be observed that in many MSS. and editions his name is written Gorgonius instead of Gargonius. There is also a rhetorician of the name of Gargonius or Gorgonius (some read Gar- gius), who is mentioned by Seneca, but is other wise unknown. (Controv. i. 7, iv. 24, Suasor. 7.) [L. S.]
GARIDAS, a Graeco-Roman jurist, said by Nic. Coinnenus Papadopoli (who calls himGaridas Leo) to have been a judex veli. (Praemt. Mystag. p. 15, 371, 400, 407.) He wrote, concerning homicides and those who take refuge in sanctuaries, to Constantinus Ducas (reigned A. D. 1059-1067), not Michael Ducas, as stated by Bach and by Pohl (ad Suares. Notit. Basil, p. 140. n. f; Basil. ed. Fabrot. vol. vii. p. 693.) He also wrote a treatise concerning actions in alphabetical order, in which arrangement he was afterwards imitated by Psellus. (Basil, vol. ii. p. 548, 556, 574, 651, 652, vol. iii. p. 78, 115, 249, 353, 389, 391, vol. vii. p. 651, 914 ; Assemani, Bibl. Jur. Or. ii. 20. p. 411; Heimbach, De Basil. Orig. p. 73; Zacha-riae, Hist. Jur. Gr. Rom. Delin. § 43.) [J. T. G.]
GAUD A, a Numidian, was son of Mastanabal, grandson of Masinissa, and half-brother to Jugur- tha, and had been named by his uncle Micipsa as heir to the kingdom, should Adherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha die without issue. In the Jugur- thine war he joined the Romans. Sallust repre sents him as weak alike in body and in mind ; and Marius therefore, when (in B. c. 108) he was en deavouring to form a party for himself against Metellus, whom he wished to supersede in the command, had little difficulty in gaining Gauda, to whom Metellus had refused certain marks of ho nour, to which, as king-presumptive, the Numidian conceived himself entitled. (Sail. Jug. 65 ; comp. Piut. Mar. 7, 8.) [E. E.]
GAUDENTIUS, the author of an elementary treatise on music, which is written in Greek. No information whatever has come down to us concerning him, and we are in utter ignorance about
him except one or two points which we may gather from the treatise which bears his name. In his theory Gaudentius follows the doctrines of Aris- toxenus, whence it is inferred that he lived before the time of Ptolemy, whose views seem to have been unknown to him. His treatise bears the title Elffayuyr) dp^oviK1^; it treats of the elements of music, of the voice, of sounds, intervals, systems, &c.? and forms an introduction to the study of music which seems to have enjoyed some reputation in antiquity. Cassiodorus (Divin. Led. 8) men tions it with praise, and tells us that one of his contemporaries, Mutianus, had made a Latin trans lation of it for the use of schools. This translation is, however, lost. The Greek original is printed with notes and a Latin translation in Meibom's Antiq. Musicae Scriptores. (Comp. Fabr. 'Bill. Graec. vol. iii. p. 647, &c.) [L. S.J
GAUDENTIUS, the pupil and friend of Phi-lastrius [philastrius], was, upon the death of his master, elected to the vacant see of Brescia by the united voice of both clergy and laity. Having received intelligence of his elevation while travelling in the east, he sought to decline the responsibility of the sacred office. But being warmly pressed by Ambrose, and threatened at the same time with excommunication by the oriental bishops in case he should persist in a refusal, his scruples were at length overcome. The most remarkable event of his subsequent career was the embassy which he undertook to the court of Arcadius, in A. d. 405, in behalf of Chrysostom, who has commemorated with eloquent gratitude this mark of attachment, although it was productive of no happy result. The year in which Gaudentius was born is unknown, as well as that in which he was raised to the episcopate, and that in which he died. Tillemont fixes upon A. D. 410 as the period of his decease, while by others it is brought down as low as 427.
The extant works of Gaudentius consist of twenty-one discourses (sermones), simple in style, but devoid of all grace or felicity of expression, deeply imbued with allegorical phantasies and farfetched conceits, exhibiting little to please or to instruct. Of these ten were preached during Easter (Pasckales\ and were committed to writing at the request of Benevolus, a distinguished member of the congregation, who had been precluded by sickness from being present; five are upon remarkable texts in Scripture, but not connected with each other; one is the address delivered on the day of his ordination (De Ordinatione sui) before St. Ambrose, who officiated on that occasion ; one is on the dedication of the church (De Dedica-tione Basilicae) built to receive the relics of forty martyrs; two are in the form of epistles; the first Ad Germinium on the obligation of almsgiving, the second Ad Paulum Diaconum on the words of St. John's Gospel, " My father is greater than I," misinterpreted by the Arians; the remaining two, De Petro et Paulo, and De Vita et Obitu Philastriit were first added in the edition of Galeardus.
The Rytlimus de Philastrio, Liber de Singularite Clericorum, and the Commentarii in Symbolum^ which have been ascribed to various fathers, certainly do not belong to Gaudentius.
The collected writings of Gaudentius were first published in the Patrum Monumenta Orthodoxogray pita of J. J. Grynaeus, fol. Bas. 1569, will be found also in the Bibl. Pair, Max. fol. Lug. Bat. 1677f