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GALL US.

the year In which the poet Persius died. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 48 ; Vita Persii.) L. S.]

GALLUS, CANI'NIUS. 1. L. caninius gallus. His praenomen Lucius is not mentioned by Cicero, but is taken from Dion Cassius (Ind. lib. 68), who calls his son L. p. He was a con­temporary of Cicero and Caesar. In b. c. 59 he and Q. Fabius Maximus accused C. Antonius of repetundae, and Cicero defended the accused. Af­terwards, however, Caninius Gallus married the daughter of C. Antonius. In b. c. 56 he was tri­bune of the people, and in this capacity endea­voured to further the objects of Pompey. With a view to prevent P. Lentulus Spinther, then pro­consul of Cilicia, from restoring Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, he brought forward a rogation that Pompey, without an army, and accompanied only by two lictors, should be sent with the king to Alexandria, and endeavour to bring about a recon­ciliation between the king and his people. But the rogation, if it was ever actually brought for­ward, was not carried. The year after his tribune-ship, b. c. 55, Caninius Gallus was accused, pro­bably by M. Colonius, but he was defended by Cicero, at the request of Pompey. In b. c. 51 he was staying in Greece, perhaps as praetor of the province of Achaia, for Cicero, who then went to Cilicia, saw him at Athens. During the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, Caninius Gallus ap­pears to have remained neutral. He died in b. c. 44. He had been connected in friendship with Cicero and M. Terentius Varro, whence we may infer that he was a man of talent and acquire­ments. (Cic. ad Q. Frat. ii. 2, 6, ad Fam. i. 2, 4, 7, ii. 8, vii. 1, ix. 2, 3, 6, ad Ait. xv. 13, xvi. 14 ; Val. Max. iv. 2. § 6 ; Dion Cass. xxxix. 16 ; Plut. Pomp. 49, where he is wrongly called Ca-nidius.)

2. L. caninius, L. f. gallus, a son of No. 1, was consul in b. c. 37 with M. Agrippa. He is mentioned in the coin annexed, which belongs to B. c. 18 as a triumvir monetalis. The obverse re­presents the head of Augustus, and the reverse a Parthian kneeling, presenting a standard, with l. caninivs gallvs uiviR. (Fasti; Dion Cass. Index, lib. 48, and xlviii. 49 ; Borghesi, in the Gfiornale Arcadieo, vol. xxvi, p. 66, &c.)

3. L. caninius gallus was consul suffectus in b. c. 2, in the place of M. Plautius .Silvanus. (Fasti.) [L. S.]

GALLUS, C. CE'STIUS, with the agnomen Camerinus, a Roman senator of the time of the emperor Tiberius, was consul in a. d. 35, with M. Servilius Nonianus. (Tac. Ann. iii. 36, vi. 7, 31; Dion Gass. Iviii. 25 ; Plin, H. N. x. 43.) [L. S.]

GALLUS, CE'STIUS, a son of the preceding, the governor of Syria (legatus, A. d. 64, 65), under whom the Jews broke out into the rebellion which ended in the destruction of their city and temple by Titus. Maddened by the tyranny of Gessius Floras, they applied to Gallus for protection ; but, though he sent Neapolitans, one of his

GALLUS.

officers, to investigate the case, and received from him a report favourable to the Jews, he took no effectual steps either to redress their injuries, or to prepare for any outbreak into which their discon­ tent might drive them. When at last he found it necessary to act, he marched from Antioch, and, having taken Ptolemai's and Lydda, advanced on Jerusalem. There he drove the Jews into the upper part of the city and the precincts of the temple; and might, according to Josephus, have finished the war at once, had he not been dissuaded by some of his officers from pressing his advantage. Soon after he unaccountably drew off his forces, and was much harassed in his retreat by the Jews, who took from him a quantity of spoil. Nero was at the time in Achaia, and Gallus sent messengers to him to give an account of affairs, and to repre­ sent them as favourably as possible for himself. The emperor, much exasperated, commissioned Vespasian to conduct the war ; and the words of Tacitus seem to imply that Gallus died before the arrival of his successor, his death being probably hastened by vexation. (Joseph. Vit. § 43, BelL Jud. ii. 14. § 3, 16. §§ 1, 2,18. §§ 9, 10, 19. §§ 1 —9, 20. § 1, iii. 1; Tac. Hist. v. 10 ; Suet. Vesp. 4.) [E. E.]

GALLUS, CONSTA'NTIUS, or, with his full name, flavius claudius (julius) constan-tius gallus, the son of Julius Constantius and Galla, grandson of Constantius Chlorus, nephew of Constantine the Great, and elder brother, by a different mother, of Julian the Apostate. (See Genealogical Table, vol. I. p. 832.) Having been spared, in consequence of his infirm health, in the general massacre of the more dangerous members of the imperial family, which followed the death of his uncle, and in which his own father and an elder brother were involved, he was, in a. d. 351, named Caesar by Constantius II., and left in the east to repel the incursions of the Persians. The principal events of his subsequent career, and the manner of his death, which happened a. d. 354, are detailed else where. [CoNSTAis'Tius II., p. 848.]

The appellation of Gallus was dropped upon his elevation to the rank of Caesar (Victor, de does. 42), and hence numismatologists have experienced considerable difficulty in separating the medals oi this prince from those of his cousin, Constantius II., struck during the lifetime of Constantine the Great, since precisely the same designation, con-: stantius caesar, is found applied to both, Several of the coins of Gallus, however, have the epithet IVN. (junior) appended by way of dis­ tinction, and others are known by FL. CL., 01 FL. IVL, being prefixed, since these names do nol appear to have been ever assumed by the eldei Constantius. For more delicate methods of discri­ mination where the above tests fail, see Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 124. [W. R.]

GALLUS, C. CORNE'LIUS (Eutropius, vii 10, erroneously calls him Cneius), a contemporarj of Augustus, who ^distinguished himself as a ge­neral, and still more as a poet and an orator. H< was a native of Forum Julii (Frejus), in Gaul, and of very humble origin, perhaps the son of som< freedman either of Sulla or Cinna. Hieronymus, ii Eusebius, states that Gallus died at the age of fortj (others read forty-three) ; and as we know fron Dion Cassius (liii. 23) that he died in b. c. 26, h« must have been born either in b. c. 66 or 69. H< appears to have gone to Italy at an early age, an<

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