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<Appiah (B. C. iii. 95)j probably in consequence of the manner in which Octavlanus had reported his own conduct, relates the event differently. Gallius, •he says, asked Octavianus to give him Africa as his province after the praetorship. But having incurred .the suspicion of a design upon the life of the triumvir, he was deprived of his office, and the populace demolished his house. The senate declared him guilty of a capital crime, but Octavianus inflicted no other punishment on him than sending him to his brother Marcus [No. 2], who was then with Antony. Gallius embarked, and was never heard of afterwards.
4. quintius gallius, so at least his name appears in the best MS., for others read Q. Gallius or Q. Gallus, seems to have been legate of Q. Mar-cius Philippus, the proconsul of Asia. Two of Cicero's letters (ad Fam. xiii. 43 and 44) are addressed to him.
GALLONIUS. 1. A public crier at Rome, whose wealth and gluttony passed into the proverb " to live like Gallonius." (Cic. pro Quint. 30, de Fin. ii. 38.) He was probably contemporary with the younger Scipio, and was satirised by Lu-cilius (Cic. de Fin. ii. 8), and by Horace (Sat. ii. 2, 46). The sturgeon (acipenser) was one of the dishes for which Gallonius' table was famous. (Lucil. ap. Cic. L c.; Hor. /. c. ; comp. Plin. H. N. ix. 17. § 60 ; Maciob. Sat. ii. 12.)
GALLUS, AE'LIUS, an intimate friend of the geographer Strabo, was praefect of Egypt in the reign of Augustus, and some time after Cornelius Gallus, with whom he has often been confounded, had been invested with the same office. His praefecture of Egypt belongs to the years b. c. 24 and 25, and these years have become remarkable in. history through a bold expedition into Arabia, in which, however, Aelius Gallus completely failed. Gallus undertook the expedition from Egypt by the command of Augustus, partly with a view to explore the country and its inhabitants, and partly to conclude treaties of friendship with the people, or to subdue them if they should oppose the Romans, for it was believed at the time that Arabia was full of all kinds of treasures. When Aelius Gallus set out with his army, he trusted to the guidance of a Roman called Syl-laeus, who deceived and misled him. A long account of this interesting expedition through the desert is given by Strabo (xvi. p. 780, &c. ; comp. xvii. pp. 806, 816, 819 ; and Dion Cass. liii. 29). The burning' heat of the sunj the bad water, and the .want of every thing necessary to support life, produced a disease among the soldiers which was altogether unknown to the Romans, and destroyed the greater part of the army; so that the Arabs were not only not subdued, but succeeded in driving the Romans even from those parts of the country which they had possessed before. Aelius Gallus spent six months on his march into the country, on account of his treacherous guide, while he effected his retreat in sixty days. It would be extremely interesting to trace this expedition of Aelius Gallus into Arabia, but our knowledge of
that country is as yet too scanty to enable us'to identify the route as described by Strabo, who de^- rived most of his information about Arabia from his friend Aelius Gallus. (Comp. Strab. ii. p. 118; Plin. H. N. vii. 28 ; Joseph. Ant. xv. 9. § 3 ; Galen, vol. ii, p. 455, ed. Basil.) [L. S.]
GALLUS, C.? AE'LIUS, a jurist, contemporary with Cicero and Varro, though probably rather older than either, is said by Macrobius (Sat. vi. 8) to have been a most learned man. He was the author of a treatise in at least two books, De Verborum, quce ad Jus Civile pertinent, Significar tione. (Serv. ad Virg. Geora. i. 264.) In Festus (s. v. Rogatio), the citation should probably be of the 2nd, not the 12th book. From a corruption of the name C. Aelius, his work has been attributed, in some passages where it is cited (Gell. xvi. 5 ; Macr. Sat. vi. 8), to a Caelius, or Cae-cilius Gallus. (Ant. Augustin, De Norn. Prop. Pandect, p. 16 ; Menage, Amoen. Juris. 22.) Athough he is not mentioned by Pomponius, nor named in the Florentine Index, there is one pure extract from him in the Digest (Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 157), and he is also twice cited in that compilation—by Gaius in Dig. 22. tit. 1. s. 19, and by Paulus, through Julianus, in Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 77 In the latter extract (if it refers to him, which is doubtful) he is cited by the name Gallus alone, a designation which elsewhere applies to C. Aquillius Gallus. These passages are commented upon by Maiansius, Ad XXX Ictorum Frag. Comment. vol. ii. p. 37—47.
Another fragment of Aelius Gallus is preserved by Gellius (xvi. 5), and several may be found in Festus (s. v. Postliminium, Reus, Saltus, Torrens, Municeps, Neoeum, Necessarii, Possessio, Recipe-ratio, Rogatio, Sobrinus, Petrarum, Sacer Mons9 Religiosum, Perfugam, Relegati, Remancipationem, Senatus Decretum, Sepulchrum.) These fragments (some of which contain valuable antiquarian information) are collected in Dirksen's Bruchst'ucke, &c., and are also given, with a commentary, by C. G. E. Heimbach (C. Aelii Galli de Verbor. quae ad jus pertinent Signif., Fragmenta, 8vo. Lips. 1823.)
Two passages in Varro (De L. L. iv. 2, iv. 10), according to the ordinary reading, make express mention of Aelius Gallus ; and in another passage (v. 7) it is doubtful whether Aelius Gallus ought not to be read. (Compare Gell. x. 21.) Upon these passages depends the precise determination of the age of Aelius Gallus. The Aelius mentioned in Varro (De L. L. v. 7) is spoken of as an old man. In other passages of Varro, where Aelius is mentioned, without the. addition Gallus, the person referred to is L. Aelius Stilo, who is not to be confounded with the jurist. Van Heusde (De L. Aelio Stilone, p. 64, 65, Traj. ad Rhen. 1839) thinks that Stilo rather than Gallus is referred to^ even in the passages De L. L. iv. 2, iv. 10. In this opinion he is followed by Lachmann (in Sa-vigny's Zeitsch. vol. xi. p. 116), who asserts that Aelius Gallus is cited by no writer more ancient than Verrius Flaccus. Lachmann attributes to C. Aelius the sentence Impubes libripens esse non potest neque antestari (Priscian, Ars. Gram. -p. 792, ed. Putsch), which is assigned by Dirksen to C. Livius Drusus. [drusus, No. 3.]