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who were devastating Moesia; he returned hastily -to Italy upon receiving news of the insurrection of Aureolus, whom he defeated, and shut up in Milan ; but, while pressing the siege of that city, he .was slain by his own soldiers, in the month of March, a. d. 268, in the fiftieth year of his age, after he had enjoyed the title of Augustus for fifteen years, and reigned alone for upwards of seven. [saloninus.]
(Trebell. Poll. Valerian, pater et fil., Gallieni duo ; Victor, de Goes, xxxiii, Epit. xxxii. xxxiii; Eutrop. ix. 7, 8 ; Zonar. xii. 23, 24 ; Zosim. i. 30, 37, 40, who speaks in such gentle terms of this prince^ that some persons have imagined that his character was wilfully misrepresented by the histo rians of the age of Constantine, who sought to ren der the virtues of their own patrons more conspi cuous by calumniating their predecessors. With regard to the names of Gallienus, see Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 417.) [W. R.]
COIN OF GALLIENUS.
, GALLIE'NUS, Q. JULIUS. We learn from Victor (Epit. 33) that the emperor Gallienus had, in addition to the Saloninus who was put to death by Postumus, another son also named Saloninus or Salonianus. This is probably the individual commemorated in an inscription (Grater, cclxxv. 5)
JMP. Q. IULIO. FILIO. GALLIENI. AUG. ET. SALO-
ninae. a ug. and who is said by Zonaras to have been put to death at Rome along with his uncle Valerianus. If, however, an unique coin, figured in the Pembroke collection, bearing on the ob verse a beardless head surrounded by rays with the legend divo. caes. q. gallieno, and on the reverse a flaring altar with the word consecratio, can be held as genuine, it would seem to indi cate that this Q. Gallienus died young and was deified by his father. (See Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 430, who mentions a second medal which perhaps be longs to the same person.) [W. R.j
M. GA'LLIO is said to be mentioned in an ancient MS. as the author of the Rhetorica ad He- rennium, which is printed among Cicero's works. But the statement is very uncertain; besides which M. Gallio is otherwise altogether unknown. (J. C. Scaliger, de Re Poet. iii. 31, 34 ; Burmann, in the preface to his edition of the Rhet. ad Herenn. p. xxx,) [L. S.]
GALLIO, JU'NIUS, a Roman rhetorician, and a contemporary and friend of M. Annaeus Seneca, the rhetorician, whose son he adopted. He was a senator; and on one occasion he proposed in the senate that the praetorians, after the expiration of their time of service, should receive a distinction otherwise reserved for equites, namely, the right of sitting in the quatuordecim ordines in the theatre. Tiberius, who suspected that this was done merely to win the favour of the soldiers, began to fear him: he first removed him from the senate, and afterwards sent him into exile. Gallio accordingly went to Lesbos ; but Tiberius, grudging him the quiet and ease which, he was likely to enjoy there,
had him conveyed back to Rome, where he was kept in custody in the house of a magistrate. (Tac. Ann. vi. 3; Dion Cass. Iviii. 18.) In his early years he had been a friend of Ovid (Ex Pont. iv. 11), and on one occasion he had defended Bathyl-lus, one of the favourites of Maecenas. (Senec. Controv. i. 2, 5 ; Quintil. ix. 2. § 91.) According to Dion Cassius (Ixii. 25), he was put to death by the command of Nero. As an orator, he was probably not above the ordinary declairners of the time, at least the author of the dialogue De Ora-toribus (c. 36; comp. Sidon. Apollin. i. 5.. § 10) speaks of him with considerable contempt. Besides his declamations, such as the speech for Bathyllus, we know that he published a work on rhetoric^ which, however, is lost. (Quintil. iii. 1. § 21 ; Hieronym, Praefat. lib. viii. in Esaiam.) Whether he is the same Gallio who is mentioned in the Acts (viii. 12) as proconsul of Achaia is uncertain. [L.S.]
GALLIO, L. JUNIUS, a son of the rhetorician M. Annaeus Seneca, and an elder brother of the philosopher Seneca. His original name was M. Annaeus Noratus, but he was adopted by the rher torician Junius Gallio, whereupon he changed his name into L. Junius Annaeus (or Annaeanus) Gallio. Dion Cassius (Ix. 35) mentions a witty but bitter joke of his, which he made in reference to the persons that were put to death in the reign of Claudius. His brother's death intimidated him so much, that he implored the mercy of Nero (Tac. Ann. xv. 73) ; but according to Hieronymus in the chronicle of Eusebius, who calls him a celebrated rhetorician, he put an end to himself in a. d. 65. He is mentioned by his brother in the preface to the fourth book of the Quaestiones'Naturales, and the work de Vita Beata is addressed to him. [L.S.]
GALLIUS. 1. Q. gallius, was a candidate for the praetorship in b. c. 64, and accused of ambitus by M. Calidius ; but he was defended on that occasion by Cicero in an oration of which only a few fragments have come down to us. He appears to have been acquitted, for he was invested with the "city praetorship in b. c. 63, and presided at the trial of C. Cornelius. (Cic. Brut. 80, de Petit. Cons. 5; Ascon. in Cic. in tog. cand. p. 88, in Cornel, p. 62, ed. Orelli. See the fragments of Cicero's oration for Gallius in Orelli's edition, voh iv. part 2, p. 454, &c.; Val. Max. viii. 10. § 3.)
2. M. gallius, a. son of No. 1. He is called a praetorian ; but the year in which he was invested with the praetorship is uncertain. He belonged to the party of Antony, with whom he was staying in b. c. 43. He seems to be the same as the senator M. Gallius, by whom Tiberius, in his youth, was adopted, and who left him a large legacy, although Tiberius afterwards dropped the name'of his adop* tive father. (Cic. ad Ait. x. 15, xi. 20; Philip* xiii. 12; Suet. Tib. 6.)
3. Q. gallius, a son of No. 1, and a brother of No. 2, was praetor urbanus in b. c. 43, and in that fearful time became one of the many victims that were sacrificed by the triumvirs. During his praetorship he had-one day, while engaged on his tribunal, some tablets concealed under his robe ; and Octavianus, suspecting that he had arms under his cloak, and that he harboured murderous designs^ ordered his centurions and soldiers to seize him; As Q. Gallius denied, the charge, Octavianus ordered him to be put to death, though afterwards in his memoirs he endeavoured to conceal the cruelty of which he had thus been guilty. (Suet. Aug. 27.)