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.was too young to take part in the contest between Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. But his noble .birth, his youth, and popularity, awakened the jealousy of Vespasian's prefect, Mucianus. Gale-rianus was arrested at Rome, conducted by a strong guard forty miles along the Appian road, and put to death by injecting poison into his veins. (Tac.
GALEUS (r«A.eos), that is, " the lizard," a son of Apollo and Themisto, the daughter of the Hyperborean king Zabius. In pursuance of an oracle of the Dodonean Zeus, Galeus emigrated to Sicily, where he built a sanctuary to his father .Apollo. The Galeotae, a family of Sicilian sooth sayers, derived their origin from him. (Aelian, V. H. xii. 46 ; Cic. de Divin.l. 20 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 7«AewTat.) The principal seat of the Galea- tae was the town of Hybla, which was hence called 7aA€wrts, or, as Thucydides (vi. 62.) writes it, y€\€aris.) [L. S.]
G ALINTHI AS (raA«/0«£s), or, as Ovid (Met. ix. 306) calls her, Galanthis, was a daughter of
-Proetus of Thebes and a friend of Alcmene. When the latter was on the point of giving birth to Hera cles, and the Moerae and Eileithyia, at the re quest of Hera, were endeavouring to prevent or delay the birth, Galinthias suddenly rushed in with the false report that Alcmene had given birth to a .Bon. The hostile goddesses were so surprised at this information that they dropped their arms. Thus the charm was broken, and Alcmene was enabled to give birth to Heracles. The deluded goddesses avenged the. deception practised upon them by Galinthias by metamorphosing her into a weasel or cat (7«A/>7), and dooming her to lead a joyless life in obscure holes and corners. Hecate, however, took pity upon her, and made her her attendant, and Heracles afterwards erected a sanc tuary to her. At Thebes it was customary at the festival of Heracles first to offer sacrifices to Galin thias. (Ov. I.e. ; Anton. Lib. 29 ; Aelian, H. A. ,xii. 5.) Pausanias (ix. 11. § 2) relates a similar story of Historis. [L. S.]
GALLA. 1. First wife of Julius Constantius, son of the emperor Constantius Chlorus by his jsecond wife, Theodora. She bore her husband two sons, one of whom Valesius thinks was the .Flavius Valerius Constantinus, consul in a. d. 327, but to whom others do not give a name; the younger was Gallus Caesar. [gallus,p. 226, b.J
2. The daughter of the emperor Valentinian I., and second wife of Theodosius the Great. According to Zosimus, she accompanied her mother, Justina, and her brother, Valentinian II., when they fled to Theodosius, on the invasion of Italy by the usurper Maximus (a. d. 387). Theodosius met the fugitives at Thessalonica, and Justina artfully placed her weeping daughter before him, to work at once on his compassion and his love. Galla was eminent for beauty, and the emperor was smitten, and requested her in marriage. Justina refused her consent, except on condition of his undertaking to attack Maximus, and restore Valentinian, to which condition he consented, and they were married, probably about the end of a. d. ,387. Tillemont, who rejects the account of Zosi-. mus as inconsistent with the piety of Theodosius, places the marriage in a. d. 386, before the flight of
Valentinian ; but we prefer, with Gibbon, the account of Zosimus. During the absence of Theo* dosius in Italy, Galla was turned out of the palace at Constantinople by her step-son, the boy Arca-dius, or by those who governed in his name. She died in childbirth, a. d. 394, just as Theodosius was setting out to attack Arbogastes and Eugenius, after giving to Theodosius a daughter, Galla Placidia [No. 3], and apparently a son named Gratian. (Ambros. De Obit. Tkeodos. Orat. c. 40, and note of the Benedictine editors.) Whether the latter, who certainly died before his father, was the child whose birth occasioned her death, or whether there was a third child, is not clear. Tillemont understands Philostorgius to claim Galla as an Arian; but the passage in Philostorgius (x. 7) appears to refer rather to her mother, Justina. However, the Paschal Chronicle calls her an Arian, and the marked silence of Ambrose with respect to Galla in the passage just referred to makes it not unlikely that she was suspected or known to be not orthodox. (Zosim. iv. 44, 45, 55, 57; Marcellin. Ghron.; Chron. Pasch. p. 563, ed. Bonn; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. v.; Gibbon, c. xxvii.)
3. galla placidia, so named in coins and inscriptions; but by historians more commonly called simply placidia, was the daughter of Theodosius the Great by his second wife Galla [No. 2.], The date of her birth does not appear: it must have been not earlier than 388, and not later than 393. She was at Rome in a. d. 408, and is accused of being one of the parties to the death oi her cousin Serena, Stilicho's widow, who was suspected of corresponding with or favouring Alaric, who was then besieging the city. It appears from this, that Placidia was then old enough to have some influence in public affairs, which consideration would lead us to throw back the date oi her birth as far as possible. Gibbon says she was about twenty in 408, which is probably correct, When Alaric took Rome, A. d. 410, Placidia fell into his hands. (if indeed she had not been previously in his power), and was detained by hirr as a hostage, but respectfully treated. Aftei Alaric's death, she continued in the power of hi* brother-in-law and successor, Ataulphus. [ataulphus.] Constantius (afterwards emperor) the Patrician [constantius, III.], on the part o: the emperor Honorius, half brother of Placidia demanded her restoration, having already, as Tille mont thinks, the intention of asking her in mar riage. Ataulphus, however, having it also in vie\^ to marry her, evaded these demands, and marriec her (according to Jornande,s), at Forum Livii, nea: Ravenna, but according to the better authority o Olympiodorus and Idatius, at Narbonne, a. d. 414 Idatius states that this matter was regarded bj some as the fulfilment of the prophecy of Danie (ch. xi.) respecting the King of the North and thi daughter of the king of the South. Philostorgius con siders that another passage of the. same prophetica book was fulfilled by the event. Ataulphus treatei her with great respect, and endeavoured to mab an alliance with Honorius, but was not successful through the opposition of Constantius. In a. r 415 Ataulphus was killed at Barcelona, leaving n issue by Placidia, their only child, Theodosius having died soon after its birth. Ataulphus, wit! his last breath, charged his brother to restor Placidia to Honorius, but the revolutions of th Visi-Gothic kingdom prevented this being don