Scanned text contains errors.
-ineness. 144. De Subfiguratione Empirica (vol. ii.
-ed. Chart.). 145. TLepl 'Edwv, De Consitetudinibus
-(vol. vi. ed. Chart.) ; of doubtful genuineness. 146. Ile/M &i\o(r6(f)ov 'loropfas, De Historia Pliir losophica (vol. xix.). This is Plutarch's work De Philosopliorum Decretis, with a few trifling alterations. 147. "Opoi 'larpiicot, Definitiones Medicae (vol. xix.); of doubtful genuineness. 148. De Partibus Artis Medicae (vol. ii. ed. Chart..) ; of doubtful genuineness. 149. "On at Uoiornres 'AcrefyiaTOf, Quod Qualitates Incorporeae sint (vol. jdx.); spurious.
No one has ever set before the medical profession
-a higher standard of perfection than Galen, and few, if any, have more nearly approached it in their own person. He evidently appears from his "works -to have been a most accomplished and learned man, and one of his short essays (§ 107.) is written to inculcate the necessity of a physician's being acquainted with other branches of knowledge besides merely medicine. Of his numerous philosophical writings the greater part are lost; but his celebrity in logic and metaphysics appears to have been great among the ancients, as he is mentioned in company with Plato and Aristotle by his contemporary, Alexander Aphrodisiensis. (Comment, in Aristot. " Topica^ viii. 1. p. 262, ed. Venet. 1513.) Alexander is said by the Arabic historians to have been personally acquainted with Galen, and to have nicknamed him Mulcts Head, on account of " the strength of his head in argument and disputation." (Casiri, BiUioth. Arabico-Hisp. Escur. vol. i. p. 243 ; Abu-1-Faraj, Hist.Dynast. p. 78.) Galen had profoundly studied the logic of the Stoics and of Aristotle: he wrote a Commentary on the whole of the Organon (except perhaps the Topica), and his other works on Logic amounted to about thirty, of which only one short essay remains, viz. De So-phismatibus penes Dictionem, whose genuineness has been considered doubtful. His logical works appear to have been well known to the Arabic authors, and to have been translated into that language ; and it is from Averroes that we learn that the fourth figure of a syllogism was ascribed to Gtalen (Eapos. in Porphyr. " Introd" vol. i. p. 56, irerso, and p. 63, verso, ed. Venet. 1552) ; a tra-
-lition which is found in no Greek writer, but vhich, in the absence of any contradictory tes-imony, has been generally followed, and has ;aused the figure to be called by his name. It is, lowever, rejected by Averroes, as less natural than he others ; and M. Saint Hilaire (De la Logique VAristote) considers that it may possibly have >een Galen who gave ta this form the name of the ourth figure, but that, considered as an annex to he first (of which it is merely a clumsy and in-rerted form), it had long been known in the Peri->atetic School, and was probably received from Aristotle himself.
In Philosophy, as in Medicine, lie does not ap-iear to have addicted himself to any particular chool, but to have studied the doctrines of each ; hough neither is he to be called an eclectic in the ame sense as :were Plotinus, Porphyry, lambli-hus, and others. He was most attached to the 'eripatetic School, to which he often accommo-ates the maxims of the Old Academy. He was ir removed from the Neo-Platonics, and with the >llowers of the New Academy, the Stoics, and the Ipicureans he carried on frequent controversies, le did not agree with those advocates of universal
scepticism who asserted that no such thing as certainty could be attained in any science, but was content to suspend his judgment on those matters which were not capable of observation, as, for instance, the nature of the human soul, respecting which he confessed he was still in doubt, and had not even been able to attain to a probable opinion. (De Foet. Form, vol. iv. p. 700.) The fullest account of Galen's philosophical opinions is given by Kurt Sprengel in his Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medicin, who thinks he has not hitherto been placed in the rank he deserves to hold: and to this the reader is referred for further particulars.
A list of the fragments, short spurious works, and lost and unpublished writings of Galen, are given in Kuhn's edition.
Respecting Galen's personal history, see Phil. Labbei, Elogium Chronologicum Galeni; and, Vita Galeni eoe propriis Operibus collecta, Paris, 1660, 8vo.; Ren« Chartier's Life, prefixed to his edition of Galen; Dan. Le Clerc, Hist.de la Medecine ; J. A. Fabricii Biblioth. Graeca. In the new edition the article was revised and rewritten by J. C. G. Ackermann; and this, with some additions by the editor, is prefixed by Kuhn to his edition of Galen. Kurt Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzney-kunde, translated into French by Jourdan.
His writings and opinions are discussed by Jac. Brucker, in his Hist. Grit. Philosoph.; Alb. von Haller, in his Biblioth. Botan., Biblioth. Chi-rurg.^ and Biblioth. Medic. Pract.; Le Clerc and Sprengel, in their Histories of Medicine ; Sprengel, in his Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medidn.
Some of the most useful works for those who are studying Galen's own writings, are, — An dr. Lacunae Epitome Galeni^ Basil. 1551, fol., and several times reprinted.; Ant. Musa Brassavoli Index in Opera Galeni., forming one of the volumes of the Juntine editions of Galen (a most valuable work, though unnecessarily prolix); Conr. Gesneri Prolegomena to Froben's third edition of Galen's works.
The Commentaries on separate works, or on different classes of his works, are too numerous to be here mentioned. The most complete bibliographical information respecting Galen will be found in Haller's Bibliothecae, Ackermann's Historia Literaria, and Choulant's Hdndb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medidn^ and his Biblioth. Medico* Historic®.
Some other physicians that are said to have borne the name of Galen, and who are mentioned by Fabricius (Biblioth.- Graec. vol. xiii. p. 166, ed. vet.), seem to be of doubtful authority. [W. A. G.]
GALERIA FUNDANA, the second wife of the emperor Vitellius, by whom he had a daughter and a son, Germanicus, who was almost deaf, and was afterwards killed by Mucianus. The father of Galeria Fundana had been praetor. She appears to have been a woman of a mild and gentle cha racter, for she protected Trachalus, with her hus band, against those who had denounced him, and she felt very deeply and keenly the brutal de gradation and cruelty of which Vitellius was guiltv. (Tac. Hist. ii. 59, 60, 64, iii. 66, iv. 80 ; Suet. Vit. 6 ; Dion Cass. Ixv. 4.) [L. S.]