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GALENUS.

have been required by the nature of the disease. He appears to have been rather bold in the use of the lancet, and (as we have seen above, § 89.) thought it necessary to defend his custom in this respect against the followers of Erasistratus then practising at Rome. In cases of emergency he did not hesitate to perform this operation himself; in general, however, though he had practised surgery at Pergamus, when at Rome he followed the custom of the physicians in that city, and abstained from surgical operations. (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Fract" iii. 21. vol. xviii. pt. ii. p. 567, &c. ; De Meth. Med. vi. 6. vol. x. p. 454.) Accordingly, in surgery he has never been considered so high an authority as several of the other old medical writers.

IX. commentaries on hippocrates, &c.

107. "On "Apiffros 'larpos Kal &i\6cro<pos9 Quod Optimus Medicus sit quoque Philosophus (vol. i.). This little work, which might at first sight seem rather to belong to the class of philosophical writ­ings, is included in this class, because Galen him­self mentions it as one of those which he wrote in defence and explanation of Hippocrates. (De Libr. Propr. c. 6, vol. xix. p. 37.) 108. Tlepl r£v Kaff 'iTriroKpdrijv ^rotx^iuVy De Elementis secun­dum Hippocratem (vol. i.). 109. Twv 'iTriroKpd-rovs T\uffff£v 'E^yTjo'is, Hippocratis Dictionum Eocoletarum) Explicatio (vol. xix.). 110. Tlepl ^irrajuyvuv Bpc^w^, De Septimestri Partu (vol. v. ed, Chart.). 111. Commentary on De Natura Ho-minis (vol. xv.). 112. On De Salubri Victus Ratione (vol. xv.). 113. On De Acre, Aquis, et Locis (vol. ti. ed. Chart.). 114. On De Alimento (vol. xv.). 115. On De Humoribus (vol. xvi.). 116. On the Prognosticon (vol. xviii. pt. ii.). 117. On the first book of the Dra&dictiones (or ProrrJietica) (vol. xvi). llBi On the first book De Morbis Popu-laribus (vol. xvii. pt. i.). 119. On the second book De Morbis Popularibus (vol. xvii. pt. i.). 320. On the third book De Morbis Popularibus (vol. xvii. pt. i.). 121. On the sixth book De Morbis Popularibus (vol. xvii. pts. i. and ii.). 122. On the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, in seven books (vols. xvii. pt. ii., and xviii. pt. i.). 123. Tlpos avkov, Adversus Lycum (vol. xviii. pt. i.). A work in defence of one of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. (Aphor. i. 14. vol. iii. p. 710.) 124. Tlpos rd * AvreipiriiJieva, rots 'liriroKpdrovs 'A<popio~[jio'is vtto 'IouA*a*>ot>, Adversus ea quae a Juliano in Plippocratis Aphorismos dicta sunt (vol. xviii. pt. i.). 125. Commentary on Hippocrates, De Ratione Victus in Morbis Acutis (vol. xv.).

126. On De Officina Medici (vol. xviii. pt. ii.).

127. On De Fracturis (vol. xviii. pt. ii.). 128. On De Articulis (vol. xviii. pt. i.). 129. Tlepl rov Trap 'liriroKpdrei K<6fj.aros, De Comate secundum Hippocratem (vol. vii.); of doubtful genuineness. 130. Tlepl rfjs Kara rov *lTnroKpd.TViv Aialrrjs evrl T(av *Q%ewv Noo'Tjudircoi', De Victus Ratione in Morbis Acutis secundum Hippocratem (vol. xix.) ; of doubtful genuineness. ,

Few persons have ever been so well quali­fied to illustrate and explain, the writings of Hippocrates as ^ Galen ; both from his unfeigned (though not indiscriminate) admiration for his works, and also from the time in which he lived, and from his own intellectual qualities. Accord­ingly, his Commentaries have always been con­sidered a most valuable assistance in understanding

• GALENttS.

the Hippocratic writings, and in old times served as a treasure of historical, grammatical, and medical criticism, from which succeeding annotators, Greek, Latin, and Arabic, borrowed freely. He wrote several other works relating to Hippocrates, some literaty and grammatical, and others medical, which are now lost, and from which much information re­specting the Hippocratic collection might have been expected. Those which still remain are chiefly medical, but contain at the same time certain phi­lological details relating to the various readings found in the different MSS., and the explanations "of the obscure words and passages given by former commentators. His own critical judgment (as far as we can form an opinion) appears to have been sound and judicious. He professes to preserve the old readings even when more difficult than the more modern, and endeavours to explain them, and never to have recourse to conjecture when he could avoid it (Comment, in Hippocr. " 'Epid. VI" i. praef. vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 794, ii. 495 ibid. p. 1005). M. Littr£, in the Introduction to his edition of Hippocrates (vol.i. p. 121), considers his chief fault to consist not so much in his prolixity as in his desire to support his own theories by the help of the writings of Hippocrates ; thus neglecting, in these works, the theories which do not agree with his own, and unduly exalting those which (like the doctrine of the four humours) form the basis of his own system.

X. philosophical and miscellaneous works.

131. Tlepl Alpiffewv rois EtVayOjUefo/s, De Sectis ad Tirones, or ad eos qui introducuntur (vol. i.) 132. Tlpos ®pao~v€ov\ov irepl 'Apiffrijs Aipeo~eus, De Optima Secta ad Thrasybulum (vol. i.). 133. riepi 'Apiarrjs AiSaovcaA/ay, De Optima Doctrina (vol. i.) 134. Tlepl twv irap& 'rr}v Ae^iv 2<a(pio--fjuiTW, De Sophismatibus (vel Captionibus) penes Dictionem (vol. xiv.). 135. TlpoTpeirriKos Aoyos eirl rds Te^as, Oratio Suasoria ad Aries (vol. i.). 136. Tlpos Tlarp6(pi\ov irepl 5vorao"ews 'laTpiitijs, De Constitutions Ariis Medicae ad Patropliilum (vol. i.). 137. Tlepl t&v 'iTnroKpdrovs Kal FIAaTcc-vos Aoy/udrcovj De Hippocratis et Platonis Decretis (vol. v.). This is a philosophical and contro­versial work, directed against Chrysippus, and others of the old philosophers, and containing at the same time much physiological matter. It was begun probably about a. d. 165, and finished about the year 170. 138. Te%^ 'larpiKri, Ars.Me-dica (vol. i.). It is often called in old editions and MSS. Ars Parva, to distinguish it from Galen's longer work, De Methodo Medendi ; and this title is not unfrequently corrupted into Microtechni, Microtegni., Tegne, &c. This is perhaps the most celebrated of all Galen's works, and was commonly used as a text-book in the middle ages. The number of Latin editions and commentaries is very great. 139. Tlepl r<av 'Ifiiow BfgAiW, De Libris Propriis (vol. xix.). 140. Tlepl ttjs Tc£ews t&v 6\W Bi§\ia>v, De Ordine Librorum Propriorum (vol. xix.). 141. Tlepl Aiayvtoffetvs Kal ©epcnreias

v ei> tt; eKdffTov "Vv)(j[) 'iSiW Tla6£v, De Diy-notione et Curatione Proptiorum cujusque Animi Affectuum (vol. v.). 142. Ilepl Aiayvacrews koi ©epaireias tcov ev tt? endo-rov ^vxy 'Ajuapr^arcyv, De Dignotione et Curatione cujusque Animi Peccato-rum (vol. v.). 143. EfVaywyr), rj *Iar^os, Intro-ductio9 seu Medicus (vol. xiv.) ; of doubtful genu-

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