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This is the last event recorded of Galba, in whose praise we have very little to say, and whose conduct in Greece, in connection with the Aetolians, greatly contributed to the demoralisation of the Greeks. . (Liv. xxv. 41, xxvi.l, 28, xxvii. 7,10,22, 31—33, xxviii. 5—7, xxix. 12, xxx. 24, xxxi. 4—8, 14, 22, 27, 33—40, xxxii. 28, xxxiii. 24, xxxiv. 59, xxxv. 13, 14, 16 ; Polyb. viii. 3, ix. 6, &c., 42, x. 41, xvi. 24, xviii. 6, xxiii. 8 ; Appian, Maced. 2, &c.; Eutrop. iii. 14 ; Oros. iv. 17.)

2. ser. sulpicius galba, was elected curule aedile in b. c. 208, and three years later he was one of the ambassadors that were sent to Asia to solicit the friendship of Attains in the impending war between the Romans and Philip of Macedonia. In 203, he was elected pontiff in the place of Q. Fabius Maximus, and in this capacity he died in b. c. 198. (Liv. xxvii. 21, xxix. 11, xxx. 26, xxxii. 7.)

3. C. sulpicius galba was elected pontifex in B.C. 201, in the place of T. Manlius Torquatus, but died as early as b. c. 198. (Liv. xxx. 39, xxxii. 7.)

4. ser, sulpicius galba was curule aedile in B. c. 188, in which year he dedicated twelve gilt shields in the temple of Hercules, out of the fines which he and his colleague had exacted. In the year following he was appointed praetor.urbanus, and supported M. Fulvius in his demand of a tri­umph. In b. c. 185, he was a candidate for the consulship, but without success. (Liv. xxx viii. 35, 42, xxxix. 5, 32.)

5. C. sulpicius galba was praetor urbanus in B.C.-171. (Liv. xlii. 28, 31.)

6. ser. sulpicius, ser. p. galba was tribune of the soldiers, and belonged to the second legion in Macedonia, under Aemilius Paullus, to whom he was personally hostile. After the conquest of Perseus, b. c. 167, when Aemilius had returned to Rome, Galba endeavoured to prevent a triumph being conferred upon the former ; but he did not succeed, although his efforts created consider­able sensation. He was praetor in b. c. 151, and received Spain as his province, where a war was carried on against the Celtiberians. On his ar­rival there he hastened to the relief of some Roman subjects who were hard pressed by the Lusitanians. Galba succeeded so far as to put the enemy to flight; but as, with his exhausted and undisci­plined army, he was incautious in their pursuit, the Lusitanians turned round, and a fierce contest ensued, in which 7000 Romans fell. Galba then collected the remnants of his army and his allies, and took up his winter-quarters at Conistorgis. In the spring of b.c. 150, he again marched into Lii* sitania, and ravaged the country. The Lusita­nians sent an embassy to him, declaring that they repented of having violated the treaty which they had concluded with Atilius,and promised henceforth to observe it faithfully. The mode in which Galba acted on that occasion is one of the most infamous and atrocious acts of treachery and cruelty that occur in history. He received the ambassadors kindly, and lamented that circumstances, especially the poverty of their country, should have induced them to revolt against the Romans. He promised them fertile lands if they would remain faithful lilies of Rome. He induced them, for this purpose, ;o leave their homes, and assemble in three hosts, tvith their women and children, in the three places ivhich he fixed upon, and in which he hiniself.



w6uld inform each host what territory they were to occupy. When they were assembled in the manner he .had prescribed, he went to the first body, commanded them to surrender their arms, sur­rounded them with a ditch, and then sent his armed soldiers into the place, who forthwith massacred them all. In the .same manner he treated the second and third hosts. Very few of the Lusita­nians escaped .from the bloody scene ; but among the survivors was Viriathus, destined one day to be the avenger of the wrong done to his country­men. Appian states that Galba, although he was very wealthy, was extremely niggardly, and that he did not even scruple to lie or perjure himself, provided he could thereby gain pecuniary advan­tages. In the year following, when he had re­turned to Rome, the tribune, T. Scribonius Libo, brought a charge against him for the outrage he had committed on the Lusitanians; and Cato, then 85 years old, attacked him most unsparingly in the assembly of the people. Galba, although a man of great oratorical power himself, had nothing to say in his own justification ; but bribery, and the fact of his bringing his own children and the orphan child of a relative before the people, and imploring mercy, procured his acquittal. Notwithstanding this occurrence, however, he was afterwards made consul for the year b.c. .144, with L. Aurelius Cotta. The two consuls disputed in the senate as to which of them was to undertake the command against Viriathus in . Spain: great dissension pre­vailed also in the senate ; but it was resolved in the end, that neither should be sent to Spain, and that Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, the consul of the year before, should continue to command the army in Spain. He must have survived the year b. c. 138, for in that year, he spoke for the publi-cani. (Cic. Brut. 22.) .Cicero speaks of his talent as an orator in terms of high praise, and calls him the first among the Romans whose oratory was what it should be. He seems to have been a man of learning; his oratory had great power, which was increased by his passionate gesticulation during delivery. Cicero found his orations more old-fashioned than those of Laelius and Scipio, and says, that for this reason they were seldom mentioned in his time. (Appian, Hispan. 58, 59, 60; Liv« xlv. 35, 36, Epit. 49; Suet. Galb. 3; Oros. iv; 20"; Val. Max. viii. 1. § 2, 7. § 1 ; Plut. Cat. Maj. 15 ; Nepos, Cat. 3; Gell. i. 12, 23,xiii. 24; Cic. de Orat. i. 10, 13, 53, 60, ii. 2, 65, iii. 7, Brut. 22, 23, 24, 33, 86, 97, Orat. ^ad Att. xii. 5, pro Muren. 28, Tuscul. i. 3, A cad. ii. 16, de Re Publ. iii. 30, ad Herenn. iv. 5; Fronto, Epist< p. 85, ed. Rom.; Meyer, Fragm. Orat. Rom. pp. 120, &c., 164, &c.)

7. ser. sulpicius, ser. f. ser. n. galba, a son of No. 6, succeeded Calpurnius Piso as praetor in Spain, and was consul in b. c. 108 ; and in 100, during the disturbances of Appuleius Sa-turninus, he took up arms" to defend the republic against the revolutionists. (Appian, Hispan. 99 ; J. Obseq. 100 ; Cic. pro Rab. perd. 70

8. C. sulpicius, ser. f. galba, apparently a son of No. 6, and son-in-law of P. Crassus Muci-anus, was quaestor in b. c. 120. During the transactions with Jugurtha he was accused of having been bribed by the Numidian, and was con­demned in b.c. 110 by a lex Mamilia. Cicero states that C. Sulpicius Galba enjoyed great favour with his contemporaries for his father's sake. His

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