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xiii., and the result of his renewed examination was given to the world by Goschen, in the celebrated edition of 1824* An improved reprint of this edition, by Lachmann, was published in 184*2, the editor having completed a critical revision, which had been interrupted by the death of Goschen. This third editio Goesclieniana is at present the editio optima.
The civilians of the continent have, from the first publication of Gaius, laboured assiduously in interpreting the text, in composing dissertations on the doctrines contained in it, and in conjectural supply of the lacunae, but no edition of the whole work with a good commentary has yet appeared. The commentary of Van Assen (Ed. 2d. Lug. Bat. 1838) extends only to the first book. Heffter's edition of the fourth book, with commentary (4to. Berlin, 1827), is valuable. Heffter's edition of the entire work, without commentary, was originally intended to form the first part of the Bonn Corp. Jur. Antejust., but all the copies of this edition have been long since exhausted, and its place has been supplied by an edition superintended by Lachraann. In Klenze and Booking's Gaii et Justiniani Institutiones (4to. Berlin, 1829), the texts of the two elementary works are placed side by side, but Gaius is made to yield to the order adopted by Justinian. Bocking's latest edition of the Institutes of Gaius (12mo. Bonn, 1841) is convenient and useful. The editor in the preface gives a list of dissertations and other publications which illustrate his author. The most valuable of these is the learned and imaginative Huschke's essay, Zur Kritik und Interpretation von Gaius Institutionen^ in his Studien des Rom. Rechts (8vo. Breslau. 1830). Further information on the literature connected with Gaius may be found in Haubold's Instit.Jur. Rom. Priv. Lineam. p. 151. n. (oo), p. 505 (8vo. Lips. 1826), and in Mackel-dey's Lehrbuch des Rom. Rechts, p. 52, n. (6) (12th ed. Gessen. 1842). There is a German translation of the first book, with copious notes of little merit, by Von Brockdorff (8vo. Schles. J 824). There are French translations of the whole work by Boulet (Paris, 1826), Domenget (1843), and Pellat (1844). From the forthcoming volume of notes and commentary, by the last-mentioned eminent professor, much is expected*
In the Lex Romana Wisigothorum^ published under Alaric II. in a. d. 506, for the use of the Roman subjects of the Westgothic kingdom, the Institutes of Gaius appear, remodelled in barbarous fashion. They have been worse treated than the Theodosian Code and other legal works introduced into the same collection ; for while a barbarous interpretation (scintilla) was subjoined to the text of the other works, Gaius was found to be so full of antiquated law, that his text, in its original state, would have been unsuitable to the character of the times. Accordingly, it was so altered and mutilated as not to want an interpretatio. The Gothic Epitome of Gaius, disfigured and imperfect as it is, is now of little use, since the discovery of the genuine Institutes, except for the purpose of understanding ancient quotations made from it, and of assisting in the restoration of the valuable original. It consists, according to the ordinary division (for the manuscripts vary in this point), of two books, and contains no abstract of the fourth book of the genuine Gaius, concerning actions. It has been ably commented upon by Schultingy who gives a selection
from the notes of preceding commentators (Jurisp. Antejust.}). 1—186),and by Meerman (Thesaurus, vol. vii. p. 669—686). It is edited by Haubold in the Berlin Jus. Civ. Ante-Just, and by Bocking in the Bonn Corp. Jur. Ante-J.
The Breviarium, or Lex Rom. Wisig., has been itself the theme of a corrupt abridgment of the second order, in base Italian Latin, interesting, perhaps, to a philological student. Those who are anxious to see to what extent an ancient monument may be defaced and deformed, may consult the Leje Romana Utinensis, at the end of the fourth volume of Canciani's Leges Barbarorum. ' The following may be taken as a favourable specimen :—" Incipit liber Gagii i. Interpr. Ingenuorum statum unum est. Nam libertorum vero trea genera sunt. In-jenui vero sunt, qui de injenuos parentes nascuntur» Liberti sunt,sicut jam diximus,trea genera: hoc est, cive Romanum, et Latine, et Divicicii." [J.T.G.j
GALA, a Numidian, father of Masinissa, and king of the Massyli. In B. c. 213, when Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, had joined the Roman alliance, Gala, at the instigation of his son, and to counterbalance the additional power which Syphax had thus gained, listened to the overtures of the Carthaginians, and became their ally. Soon after this, while Masinissa was aiding the Carthaginians in Spain, Gala died, and was succeeded, according to the Numidian custom, by his brother Oesalces. (Liv.xxiv.48,49,xxix.29 ; App. Pwz. 10.) [E. E.}
2. A daughter of Eurytius, and the wife of Lamprus, the son of Pandion, at Phaestus in Crete. Her husband, desirous of having a son, ordered her, if she should give birth to a daughter, to kill the infant. Galateia gave birth to a daugh ter, but, unable to comply with the cruel command of Lamprus, she was induced by dreams and sooth sayers to bring up the child in the disguise of a boy, and under the name of Leucippus. When the maiden had thus grown up, Galateia, dreading the discovery of the secret and the anger of her hus^ band, took refuge with her daughter in a temple of Leto, and prayed the goddess to change the girl into a youth. Leto granted the request, and hence the Phaestians offered up sacrifices to Leto Phytia (i. e. the creator), and celebrated a festival called c/cS&na, in commemoration of the maiden having put off her female attire. (Anton. Lib. 17.) [L. S.]
GALATON (raXcfcrwp), a Greek painter, whose picture, representing Homer vomiting, and other poets gathering up what fell from him, is men tioned by Aelian ( V. H. xiii. 22), and by a scholiast to Lucian (i. p. 499, ed. Wetstein), who calls the painter Gelato. He probably lived under the earlier Ptolemies, and his picture was no doubt intended to ridicule the Alexandrian epic poets. (Meyer, Kunstgeschkhte^ vol. ii. p. 193 ; Muller, Archaol. d. Kunsl, § 163, n. 3.) [P. S.]
1. P. sulpicius, ser. f. P. n. gajlba maxi-mus, was elected consul for the year b. c. 2"il,.ai«