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with a good colour, and read with energy." Reply: ." To my Master,—I shall never love you enough.

I will sleep." .

II. Epistolarum ad Antoninum Imperatorem Libri //., addressed to M. Aurelius, now emperor, comprising in all eighteen letters, eight from the emperor to Fronto, ten from Fronto to the emperor.

III. Epistolae ad Verum. Two letters to Verus, the person addressed being probably M. Aurelius, who, at the period of his adoption, was known as M. Annius Verus. [M. aurelius.]

IV. Epistolarum ad Verum Imperatorem Liber, comprising in all thirteen letters, six from Verus to Fronto, seven from Fronto to Verus.

V. De Bella Parthico, a short fragment of a history of this. disastrous campaign, drawn up at the earnest request of Verus.

VI. De Feriis Alsiensibus. Four epistles, two from M. Aurelius, now emperor, to Fronto ; two from Fronto to M. Aurelius, containing some allu­sions to certain festivities at Alsium.

VII. De Nepote Amisso. A short note of con­dolence from M. Aurelius to Fronto on the loss of a grandsonj the child of his daughter and Aufidius Victorinus, with a reply at some length by Fronto.

VIII. Arion. Apparently a brief rhetorical exercise upon this legend.

I.. De Eloquentia. A fragment addressed to M. Caesar.

.. De Orationibus, in two letters, addressed

II Antonino Augusto."

.I. Epistolae ad Antoninum Pium, comprising in all nine letters, one from Pius to Fronto, four from Fronto to Pius, one from Fronto to M. Caesar, one from M. Caesar to Fronto ; together with two of which the addresses are doubtful.

.II. Epistolarum ad Amicos Libri II., com­prising in all thirty-seven letters, the whole written by Fronto, with the exception of one from Appian the historian, which, as well as the reply of Fronto, is in Greek.

.III. Principia. Historiae. A mutilated frag­ment.

.IV. Laudes Fumi et Pulveris, and XV. Laudes Negligentiae, Two dull scraps of paradoxical plea­santry, on the former of which at least the author seems to have prided himself (De Feriis Als. 3.)

XVI. Fragmenta, collected from various sources.

XVII. De Differentiis Vocabulorum.

Allusions are contained in the above and in the Latin grammarians to several works by Fronto, of which no trace remains. A catalogue of these, as well as of the works erroneously ascribed to this Fronto, will be found in the edition of Niebuhr noticed below.

The Editio Princeps of the newly found remains was printed at Milan in two volumes, 8vo. 1815 ; was reprinted verbatim at Frankfort in 1816 ; and with important improvements and commentaries by Niebuhr, Ph. Buttmann, and Heindorf, 8vo. Berol. 1816. Of the Roman edition of 1823 we have spoken above ; the new pieces that appeared in that edition were republished (Cellis, 1832,) as a supplemental volume to the Milan, Frankfort, and Berlin editions. A translation of the latter, by Armand Cassan, with the Latin text " en re­gard " appeared at Paris, 2 vols. 8vo,, 1830.

The De Differentiis Vocabulorum was first printed in the w Grammatici Illustres XII." fol.



Paris, 1516 ; and will be found in the " Auctores Linguae Latinae " of Dionysius Gothofredus, 4to. Genev. 1595, 1602, 1622 ; and in the "Gram-maticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui " of Putschius, 4to. Hanov. 1605, p.2191.

The ancient authorities with regard to Fronto have been carefully collected in the dissertations prefixed to the editions by Mai and Niebuhr. In the Roman edition of 1823 is given for the first time a distinct account of the palimpsests of Milan and the Vatican. [W. R.]

FRONTO, of emisa, the uncle of Longinus, taught rhetoric at Athens, and wrote many ora­tions, in the reign of Alexander Severus. There are two epigrams by him on points of grammar in the Greek Anthology. (Suid, s. v. <bp6vT<av Efu-a"r)v6s ; Brunck, Analect. vol.ii. p. 347 ; Jacobs, AntTiol. Graec. vol. iii. p. 56, vol. xiii. p. 938.) [L. S.]

FRONTO, JU'LIUS, is mentioned as theprae-fectus vigilum at the accession of Galba, A. d. 68, who deprived him of this office. He was probably restored to his office by Otho, when the latter ob­tained the supreme power, a. d. 69, for we find him serving as tribune in Otho's army in the cam­paign against Caecina, the general of Vitellius. His brother, Julius Gratus, was praefect of the camp in Caecina's army, and Galba's soldiers, suspecting that Julius Fronto meditated treachery, put him in chains. His brother Gratus met with the same treatment from Caecina's soldiers, and for the same reason. (Tac. Hist. i. 20, ii. 26.)

FRONTO, OCTA'VIUS, a contemporary of the emperor Tiberius, had once been invested with the praetorship, and in A. D. 16 spoke in the seriate against the great luxury then prevailing. (Tac. Ann. ii. 33.) [L. S.]

FRONTO, PAPI'RIUS, a jurist, who pro­ bably lived about the time of Antoninus Pius, or rather earlier, for he is cited by Marcianus (who lived under Antoninus and several succeeding emperors), as if he were an elder contemporary: " Peculium nascitur, crescit, decrescit, moritur, et ideo eleganter Papirius Fronto dicebat, peculium simile esse homini." (Dig. 15. tit. 1. s. 40. pr.) He published Responsa (Dig. 14. tit. 2. s. 4. § 2. fin.) ; and a third book of this work is cited by Callistratus. (Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 220. § 1.) In Dig. 30. s. 114. § 7, an opinion in which Fronto agrees with Scaevola is approved of by Marcianus. It is not likely that the Deer eta Frontiana upon which Aristo wrote, or on which Aristo was cited (Dig. 29. tit. 2. s. ult.), had any connection with the jurist Fronto ; nor are there sufficient grounds for the identification of the jurist, or the establish­ ment of his relationship, with any of the Frontones who are known to have lived about the age of the Antonines. (Maiansius, ad XXX. Ictorum Frag. Com. vol. ii. p. 256—263.) [J. T. G.]

FRONTO, VrBIUS, served as commander of the cavalry under Pomponius Flaccus in b. c. 19, and conquered king Vonones on thlTrTVer Pyramus. (Tac. Ann. ii. 68.) [L. S.]

FRUGI, a surname of L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in b. c. 133, and also borne by some of his descendants. [Piso.]

FUFIA GENS, plebeian, has been frequently confounded, both in MSS. and by the earlier scholars, with a Fusia gens, which did not exist, at least during the latter period of the republic, and is only the ancient form of the name of the Furia gens. The Fufii do not occur in history

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